Category: Essays

The study of women and their contributions to the political economy is a diverse topic


12341308_10153184390540825_6576509195751453998_nWriter Courtney Duncan

Political economy refers to different, but related approaches to studying economic and political behaviours in reference to other fields such as law, education, health, social environment and gender. The fundamental driving force of political economy is economic progress in relation to the division of labour and the development of science. Labour within our society is a fascinating and diverse theme because of the role of women as changed so much since the early 1600s. Themes such as scientific evolution, politics, religion, indigenous cultures and European cultures have all influenced the political economy on a global scale.

The study of women and their contributions to the political economy is a diverse topic, in that much has changed since the 1600s  “In the 1600s, there were two cultures in Ontario: hunter gatherer bands in the north, and horticultural, tribally organized Native people in the south.”[i] The hunter gatherer society was influenced by the fur-trading of New France, whereas the tribal horticultural bands were influenced by the British who colonized their territory by building large cities and farms.

Britain and France believed in the theory of mercantilism. Mercantilism is an economic theory that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that a nation’s prosperity depends on its success in accumulating its wealth by exporting more than it imports. “From the 1500s to the 1700s in Canada, mostly European men and Native people engaged in fur trading, hunting and gathering, horticulture and agriculture.”[ii] The Europeans were bewildered by the less than a hierarchical order of the indigenous people, which included easy divorces, sexual freedom, polygamy and equal work status. It was the native women who played a vital role in the fur trade. Without the Indian women, the Europeans would not have survived the harsh winters of the north.

“For most of the 1700s, Native people were treated with the cautious respect accorded allies in war and partners in trade.”[iii] This changed when the colony of New France was ceded to Britain in 1763. The system switched from mercantilism to an industrial society. This was a period where villages were established and most of the people married someone forms their village or community. In this period there were Catholic villages and Protestant villages, farming and trading villages.

European society had always subjugated women. Women were not given equal opportunities and equal pay when working with men. A woman’s contribution on the farm was considered important to the economic survival of the family; however, women were subjected to sexual harassment and brutal beatings. As the century progressed, two major economic changes occurred. “Small scale subsistence farming was gradually replaced with large-scale, high-volume commercial agriculture and employment based at or near the home was replaced by work in large factories. With the advent of commercial expansion in the nineteenth century, work and family life became increasingly separate.”[iv] This was the start of an urban and industrialised workforce that witnessed the influx of new immigrants.

Industrialization created controversy because it reiterated a caste system that is still practised around the globe today. Industrialization limited the opportunities for women in the work sector. In this period, it became demeaning for married women to labour for wages. Working class women would save every penny for their future wedding. Upon marriage, women were considered to be inferior to men and women became the property of their husbands. Women could not hold a job nor was she allowed to vote.

Canada gained its independence in 1867 and motherhood was still regarded as women’s main profession. “New Zealand was the first country to give women the right to vote.”[v] By the 20th century, women in most nations won the right to vote and increased their education and job opportunities. The famous five were five Alberta women, Nellie McClung, Irene Parlby, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Emily Murphy, and Louise McKinney. Nellie McClung is best remembered in Manitoba for her achievements in getting Manitoba to become the first province to allow women the right to vote and achieve provincial office in Canada. “Nellie McClung was one of the Famous Five—five Alberta women who petitioned the government of Canada to expand the legal definition of the word person to include women. Ottawa refused, but the five persevered, appealing to London. Eventually, they won their case; in 1929.”[vi]

We need to understand the key explanations of women, work and family within the political and economic sphere. Originally, native women were equal to their partners in the economic and political system. The migration of Europeans to North America changed the social and economic structure of the state. Mercantilism soon gave way to an agrarian system that evolved into an industrialized society. British North America was formed after 1793 and British laws dominated society. For the next 124 years, women were servile to men in Canada. It was women such as Nellie McClung who earned political, social and economic freedom for the women of Canada.

“The simplest and least threatening version of feminism is to ask for what is seen in North America as simple fairness. Even lots of Americans who would never, ever think of themselves as actually being feminists nonetheless expect fairness for women”[vii] Women have achieved many equality rights in the workplace. “For example, employers have to accommodate women who are pregnant. It is also illegal for an employer to ask a woman if she is pregnant.”[vii] Society has come a long way, from a century ago, and we have made many positive changes. Today more men can handle the position of nurturing a baby. Finally, the economic position of women can only improve because they are now more educated and preconditioned to survive the world that is based on many social laws.

An important factor in analysing the social laws implemented between men and women is gender analysis. Gender analysis identifies the inequality between men and women. Gender analysis is based on the premise that women and men should be treated in the same way. Gender analysis is based on two key components-gender equity and gender equality. “Gender equity takes into consideration the differences in women’s and men’s lives and recognises that different approaches may be needed to produce outcomes that are equitable.”[ix] Gender equality is based on the human rights code which declare equality for all people regardless of race, sex and religion.

By using the Gender Analysis article as an analytical guide, there will be a comparison between the article titled, “Baby Bust: Declining birth rates in Canada to Toronto Star article titled, “Opinion Babies make comeback – except in Canada. These two articles are closely related because they try to find a solution to the problem of declining birth rates in Canada. More importantly one can get a better understanding of why some regions have a higher or normal birth rate compared to others.

The article Baby Bust by Ginette Petipas-Taylor shows concern for the declining birth rates in Canada. The author uses government statistics to depict the situation in Eastern Canada. Eastern Canada has the lowest birth rate in Canada. “The average age for a woman to give birth in Canada is 30 years old. This is a significant increase from a generation ago in the 1970s when the average age to give birth was 24 years of age.”[x] By using the gender analysis article as a guide one realizes that women in Canada are taking advantage of all the equality that life as to offer. Women are marrying at a later age because they would like to start a career. This is the major reason for a lower birth rate in the bigger cities.

Within the rural areas of the eastern region, the decline in birth involves unemployment and young people migrating to bigger cities across the country in search of career opportunities. The writer is under the assumption that women would like to have more children, however high taxes and inadequate maternal leave programs in provinces such as Ontario, makes the prospect of having large families difficult. Women also fear the repercussion of taking too much time off work to have a child.

In the Toronto star article titled, Babies make comeback – except in Canada, the writer Carol Goar, praises the plan implemented by Premiere Jean Charest.  The province of Quebec spends upwards of 45% more than other provinces to support families. “Critics call Quebec’s approach costly social engineering. But the majority of citizens support their government’s family policies because they make life easier for parents and safeguard the province’s francophone identify.”[xi]  Carol Goar believes that women across Canada would opt for large families, but the benefits in provinces such as Ontario and British Columbia are not equal to the top countries of the world. Carol Goar believes that the Gender analysis law has many flaws. Goar suggests that the system used in Quebec should be the system used across the province of Canada.

Gender Analysis is understood as giving the female sex an equal opportunity to compete in every sector of life. Both articles indicate that certain regions do have a higher birth rate. However, both writers fail to identify that in the indigenous regions of the Northwest Territories and on reservations, high birth rates continue because of drug dependency, rape, alcohol and low self esteem. Both writers fail to explain that the native population and to smaller extent provinces such as Newfoundland, New Brunswick and PEI. These regions are not considered desired regions for economic growth. A more accurate analysis would be to chart the pregnancy rate in relation to ethnic groups, religious faith and social background.

All the articles defined equality. Equality is, at the very least, freedom from adverse discrimination. Gender analysis is a process of constant and flexible examination. In the 1950s, the role for women was almost exclusively housewife after marriage. Women today have more opportunities to rise in the financial world. This means that women are getting married at a much older age and some women are choosing not to have children. This is a tough task for our government, because the problem of declining birthrates is more than economics.









[i] Deborah Davidson,  SOCI 3860 6.0 A&B Women, Work and Family “Family Histories” (Toronto, Ontario: 2009),pg12

[ii] Ibid….pg13

[iii] Ibid….pg14


[iv] Ibid….pg18

[v] (accessed November 28th 2009)

[vii] Deborah Davidson,  SOCI 3860 6.0 A&B Women, Work and Family “Family Histories” (Toronto, Ontario: 2009),pg7


[xi] (accessed November 30th 2009)






When I was a younger man, I remembered the panic and understood the threat of the epidemic known as AIDS. Initially, the virus only threatened the lives of same sex men, but it soon spread to the heterosexual community. The world witnessed a cultural change that epitomised a more traditional lifestyle when AIDS moved into the heterosexual community. The disease blamed on LGBTQ community and many other groups such as people from Haiti and Africa. Historians and other scholars are now writing the devastation of AIDS. These scholars are now comparing the epidemic to another disease known as the Black Death which occurred in the fourteenth century.

          “The Black Death” is familiar terminology for a disease that appeared in a century of calamity. “Within this period we can research, war, famine, disease, economic decay, political chaos and spiritual crisis and resulting social unrest which dogged the whole century.”{Backman, 2003; pg.369} The Black Death in thirteen-forty-eight is arguably the greatest catastrophe that had triggered events to end the dark ages. “The great plague arrived in Latin Europe-first appearing in Messina, Sicily-in November of thirteen-forty-eight, struck Marseilles, in southern France, early in thirteen-forty-eight and from there, it spread throughout the continent.”{ibid…pg. 375} Historians will tell you that it is difficult to calculate the precise number of casualties, but most agree that approximately one-third of the population in Europe succumbed to this disease. The number is staggering, but you as a scholar have to imagine a malnourished population living in squalid conditions without the sanitation practices of our present era. The bubonic plague of thirteen-forty-seven created dramatic structural changes in European society. These changes are evident in the economy, politics, church and culture.  This paper is written to analyse and determine if the bubonic plague had an over all impact on European society. I will prove that changes occurred due to feudalism and the secular power structure. I will not be investigating all of Europe. The research on the bubonic plague narrows its focus upon the state of England. 

Illustration of Victims of Bubonic Plague from the Toggenberg Bible

        The Black Death reached England in the summer of thirteen forty-eight. In this period England had experienced heavy rains. The harvest destroyed and England’s population was dealt a blow of enormous force with the loss of life on a scale that has not occurred. {Ormond & Backman, 1996. Pg 28}  The consequence of the plague had a lasting impact on the economy of England. The plague attacked anyone and anything. The rich man died from the plague, peasant girl, tavern hoar, priest and noble. The plague even killed draught-animals used to till the fields and dairy cows. As dairy was a staple in the peasant diet, its importance is valuable. The economic disaster was felt most in the production of wheat used for bread and barley which produced ale. Ale is the most common drink amongst the poor people because it was cheap and it could be kept for awhile before it went bad.


                   The production of wool declined when the disease attacked the sheep. “The emptying of villages and district meant the ruin of vineyards.” {Backman, 2003. Pg 377} Wine was considered the drink of the rich and the noblest.  It was also one of the most productive trades of the Southern European countries and the region of Southern France. With the decline in the serf and peasant population, the liege lords and rich merchants could not find anyone to make them huge profits. The only solution was to increase the wages of the working class which increased the standard of living for the peasant folk. BLACK DEATH 5.gif

        The bubonic plague also changed the physical structure of the economy in that the farm lands were now given over to pasture, which was less (sic) labour intensive. The business of pasturing supplemented the lost income from agricultural products such as wheat and vegetables. The landowners turned these pastures into sheep runs which did boost the cloth and wool industries. In the future, these and became a crisis for poor tenants in the early eighteen-hundreds that faced eviction from land owners who wanted higher profit from the sheep runs. The physical structure of the economy was affected by the increased mobility people begun to have. Long gone were the days of a peasant or serf who was tied to the land by contractual or hereditary duties to a feudal lord. Because of the plague, many of these indentured serfs would just run away in fear of catching the disease. Moreover, it would sometimes take the lives of an entire farming community, so they had nobody to enforce these manorial laws when they left the fief.


           The greatest change to the economy was the loss of skilled artisans and capable men who could read or write. The plague took the lives of many of these skilled and educated people. The immediate change was the regression of architectural structures. The buildings became very simple, and the expansion of new monuments and castles came to a stand still until the period of the Renaissance. Furthermore, the church suffered the highest losses because they always took in sick people to save the souls. When the bishops and various ecclesiastical members died, many universities were closed or became extinct. Thie result a loss of revenue for the church and university towns that provided high rents and other fees. The solution for the loss of skilled labourers and scholars was to advertise all across Europe. These skilled men included butchers, University professors, tanners, horseshoe fitters, bishops and paid soldiers. I believe that the great loss in the plague increased the number of mercenaries and paid soldiers across Europe. With the loss of lives, the Kings of Europe had to recruit outside of the country. The plague also brought many foreigners into new territories looking for work. Wherever the skill was needed the opportunity was available for this labourer. Moreover, some areas may have seen a decline in the wool production and some may have seen an increase because the disease may not have attacked certain animals in various areas. Therefore northern England may have needed one-thousand shear croppers, and Southern France may have only needed one-hundred. The final analysis is that urban workers profited from the plague (while rural farmers farmer’s remained stuck in poverty. {Backman, 2003, pg 378}

           Another change is the shift of workers from rural farms to migrate to the city in search of work. With the coming of unskilled workers to the city, the skilled artisans then demanded more money. For example, a man training as a carpenter is elevated to architect with the death of the designers. This increase in wages also developed new trade unions and it also indirectly created other avenues besides the church for political leadership or education.

                The political entity or makeup of many European states was The Crown, Nobility and the church. By the ending of the “Bubonic Plague,” the governments had inherited an intricate problem. The economy ruined and the peasant could now demand or control the rent they paid. The royal governments had tried to increase the tax because of the higher wages of the urban workers. The poor and the urban workers had now believed they were singled out to finance recovery. Moreover many governments tried to issue wage controls and freezing prices for manufactured goods. What we must remember is that manufacturing of goods was always controlled by the bourgeoisie and with the loss of draught animals and labourers to harvest the crops. The nobility very quickly realised that this rising middle class would become much wealthier than they had planned. The only solution was to impose their traditional privileges over the rural classes. In England, the landlords joined with the merchants. They created the statute of labourer’s in thirteen-fifty-one; this statute froze rents and wages. Later on, Parliament ordered a series of poll taxes in the thirteen seventies, which hurt the peasants again. The tax took more than ten percent of annual wage of each person living and working in a household. Because of these taxes caused by the burden of the plague. The peasant revolts, war and wage freeze, became a normal thing in the mid thirteen-fifties and onwards. To continue in the peasant of revolt thirteen sixty-one Simon Sudbury was murdered. More important he was the arch bishop of Canterbury, and a King did not kill him, a peasant mob murdered him. It is a political crisis. Because if the mob could kill the arch bishop, they could kill the King in the name of political change.      

           The cause of these political uprisings in England and across Europe linked to the depopulation of Europe, which had now created opportunities for the poor to rise and nurture stronger political doctrines. In later years the peasants and working artisans aligned themselves with a political group that took the name or title of ministers of the common people or the House of Commons. This new connection with politics and the peasants had diminished the value of the church to influence or control the peasant folk.   

         The Church in the earlier medieval period had ruled the continent with the anointed lords.  With the coming of the plague, the church put into a position where they needed to provide spiritual answers and miracles. They could not provide cures; they could only blame other religious groups. The most common religious groups to blame was the Muslims and more important to this manuscripts the Jewish community. The Jewish people had migrated to areas like Spain, France and England beginning in the sixth century.  In the period of the plague according to the Church, the Black Death was God’s punishment for the sinfulness of humanity. They also believed that the Jewish people with the help of the rabbi’s had somehow put this curse on Europe. However, the Jewish community was more hygienic they did not suffer a greater loss as the Christian population.  The result was a widespread prosecution, theft of properties and murder of the Jewish people in the name of religion. The church had promised cures, but more people died. Many of the clergies fled for their lives because the villagers began to start revolts against the church when they realised that it was a deeper problem than the Jewish nation cursing Europe. In England, more than forty percent of the clergy died in the period from thirteen-forty-eight to thirteen-fifty-one.  The mortality rate results in the decline of church power and the breeding ground for new religious heresies in the name of God.

     The most famous of these was the Flagellants and the Lollards. The Lollards stated that temporal matters had corrupted the Catholic Church and that its heredity did not justify its claim to be the true church.  Moreover the Lollards and other common believed it was time for a change because the Catholic religion was not the true house of God. In the fourteenth century, so many people wanted religious change, and these new radical groups provided the change. The monastic orders had promised to send the disease back to hell, and this was not happening. In the revolts against the Holy Roman Empire, new heresy like Lollardy paved the way. WycliffeYeamesLollards_01.jpg

           The Flagellants were not in England but they travelled throughout Europe, and initially, they were in favour with the church. The Flagellants would inflict pain on the body and some other form of torture. The Flagellants gave penance to God believing that by divine intervention, the disease dies. In the fourteenth century, the Flagellants were blamed for the plague in some towns because it seemed when they arrived the plague arrived too. The Catholic Church soon banned them. The plague had thus influenced church society. The one thing which is obvious from these figures is that the initial impact of the Black Death did not cause a crisis of faith or deter men from entering the priesthood. {Ormond, 1996 pg 89}  What it does suggest is that where the door was closed for men to enter into Catholicism. These new religious groups or fathers of Protestantism were now strong and ready to battle the old monastic orders for freedom and religion. This fight is religious warfare and a wider scope of a cultural revolution of society in England and the rest of Europe. The_flagellants_at_Doornik_in_1349

        The vigorous culture of European Civilization was dependent on art, music and new manuscripts. During the period of the bubonic plague and after Europe witnessed a complete turn around in the culture, which fought for artistic and humanistic freedoms.  However, it also showed the character and nature of the darkness of the plague within its art and new theology. “It put Europeans into a state of shock – shock from watching thousands of corpses pile up in the streets, shock at the complete failure of their religion to save them. Europeans began to question their old values {} To continue so much of the artistic and literary expression of fourteenth century Europe was a direct result of what people saw of the plague. Imagine dead bodies piled as high as a mountain. Moreover, imagine a poor peasant receiving hundreds of gold coins just to pile these bodies and burn them to ashes. The medieval art of the twelfth century owes its style to romance, passion and chivalric warfare. ‘Gone were the days of beautiful maidens depicted in pictures with handsome knights willing to preserve the (sic) honour of the  lady




This artwork of vibrancy colour and beauty changed dramatically after the bubonic plague had run its course. The paintings depicted death, rape and gloom. The physical nature of the work was stoic. The only analysis is the artist and thinkers were expressing feelings of hatred towards the church and nobility. The majority of the population had believed that the world was coming to an end. They had envisioned the coming of this day as the wicked day or the end of the world. Much of the blame placed on the church and the nobility. So much of the artwork depicts the end of the world or doomsday. The chains of the poor melted away from the hot fires of hell, and the Norman nobility who had first enslaved them in ten sixty-six were now feeling the wrath of God. Many of these people believed it was the end of the world and they took part in massive sexual rituals and some even denounced God. Evidence of 13th century Europeans believes that the world had ended founded in the pictures and the writings of art in Sicily and other parts of Europe. A prime example of this plague art shown in the pictures below.


 Illustration of Victims of Bubonic Plague from the Toggenberg Bible




In the picture, we have skeleton horses, orgies and murder. The culture of the people who had not necessary denounced God but the power of the church and the nobility.

                This culture shock was not only noticeable in the areas of art. In marriage, the average person age changed. In the previous centuries, urban and rural males married rather late, to inherit land or capital to support a family. After the plague, however, rural men began to marry earlier at an age closer to that of their wives. The reason for this was the generation of this period now wanted to achieve everything before they died. This included marriage, children and sexual pleasures. In the decades of plague millions of men and women died without experiencing marriage. The era produced people who needed to experience life pleasures. Also before the plague, the music and costumes were brilliantly decorated. In the decades after the plague music was none existent. Even the poetry changed. For example, the English nursery rhyme titled “Ring around the Rosy”. They say that it started in the “Middle Ages when the Plague was rampant. The ‘ring around the rosy’ referred to the marks that showed up on people’s bodies, and the ‘pocket full of posies’ means the nosegays people would hold up to their noses to block out the stench of the dead. As we all know, the next line is ‘Ashes, ashes, we all fall’, meaning that so many died, it seemed as if everyone would ‘fall dead’.(( Another story is the Pied Piper. The story is an account of hundreds of rats crawling out of the city sewers and hideaways to die. Many historians believed the date of the Pied Piper, was changed to a century before as not to bring a curse back to the world.”(Encyclopedia).

         The effects of the plague are finally identified culturally in the words of Petrarch. To continue Petrarch talks about art, he said that “though its beauty is a source of wonder to the masters of the art, the ignorant do not understand it. (Wilkins, 1959 pg 182-3) What Petrarch is saying is the families welcome a less worldly and less humanistic art than that of the earlier years.  A further study of Italy and early humanism shows you that the movement had started in Florence. Boccaccio, in the Decameron, writes of Florence, that ‘they’ dug for each graveyard a huge trench, in which they had laid the corpses. They arrived by the hundreds at a time, piling them up to tier upon tier as merchandise stored on a ship, each covered with a little earth until the trench would hold no more. (Boccaccio, pg.6-7) This suffering influenced and strengthened the minds of the free thinkers to be acutely aware of the church. It seems these humanists also relished in the idea that the church and nobility shall feel the wrath of Hades. The era of Boccaccio and Petrarch exuded deep emotions, but this was not feelings of chivalry or romance, it was pain suffering and fear. It was a fear of death and survival, but more important it was a fight to keep the new freedom inherited by the vagabond working class. The most significant works of art look like deep melancholy and emotional pain, suffering and death. However, whether this loss of artistic colour and vibrancy resulted directly from the plague is hard to say, because the scholars of art will tell you that art is always changing naturally. What I see though is the impact of the change and how it changed physically. What I mean is the talented churchmen and Kings had all their favourites. When this artist who did work like painting or wrote manuscripts for the nobility, when they succumbed to the plague, this opened the door for the artist of a lower middle class or peasant line to achieve personal expressions. What I believe is the plague indirectly freed many people to express themselves artistically and politically. This new expression owes much of its freedom to the events of the bubonic plague.


          In conclusion, a bubonic plague is an event of an epic and devastating catastrophe, but it was not the only tumultuous event of the thirteen hundreds. We scholars analyse, the hundred year wars and the expulsion of the Plantagenet’s dynasty from France, along with the Great Famine, and the inquisitions of the church to expel the ‘Cathars and the Templar Knights as events that engineered great changes.  What is remarkable about the plague is some people who died in Europe. In fact, more people died in a three year period than in the two world wars.  To continue these changes could easily are the natural evolution of man in the society.  A more important element that evoked major changes in the middles ages was the humanist movement. In studying the circumstance in how humanism was born you learn of ‘flesh and blood and the struggles of people. A passion and political freedom that England and the rest of Europe achieved from the monastic orders and the liege lords.  Finally, the plague has been around before the bible, and it is still with us today. The symbolization is the grey or skeleton horse of death which in revelations brought great, war and famine. Symbolically speaking the grey horse of death did make me realise that we are not gods and we should look upon our eyes. But as scholars can we ignore the natural evolution of man and put so much, on us, on the plague being the most important reason for economic political and social changes. The ethical solution to this problem is to study the evolution of the German and English language in relations with the printing press and its freedom from the ruling Latin nobility across Europe.

Courtney Duncan








Vampires Evil Monster or Innocent Victims? …………Essay!



A character is an individual or creature in an art form of the narrative variety such as a book, theatre, painting or film. The character Elizabeth Bathory, from the film, The Countess and the vampire Carmilla from the novel titled, Carmilla written by Sheridan Le Fanu has two powerful female characters who are opposites in life, but in death, you see the characters evil similarity.  For example, the basic component to both characters is flat versus round character. An explanation of a flat character is an uncomplicated person. The definition of a round character is a complex figure. Furthermore, the settings contributed to differences and similarities in that the vampire is only able to function from sunset, whereas, Countess Bathory, is capable of movement in the day or night. Finally, the theme and plot differ in that the vampire Carmilla only code in life is survival and evasion, whereas, Countess Bathory, life involved governing and social bonding. In the end, the differences equate eerie similarities in the passing of both females. The purpose of the essay is to explain the differences in the two characters. The conclusion identifies if the two characters are innocent victims or evil monsters and if they any similarities.       cARMILLA

The vampire Carmilla comes across as a flat character in that her personality is relatively the same throughout the story. A vampire uses dark powers to disguise his or her true intentions. The community where Carmilla dwelled is a very lonely place. On page 5, the narrator states that the hall door towards the road, the castle stands fifteen miles to the right, and twelve to the left. Also, the nearest inhabited village is about seven miles, and the nearest mansion is that of the old General Spielsdorf, nearly twenty miles away to the right. (Sheridan & Sullivan, page 5) The isolation plays into Carmilla strengths because it enables her to disguise herself as a young girl in distress only to feed off the blood of victim and move on to the next household. There is no need for multiple characters; she is the innocent girl who sleeps late and rises at sunset to feed on victims. All of the men and women in the story are oblivious to the vampire until the end, and that allows Carmilla to settle into her character. On the contrary Countess Elizabeth Bathory is a complicated subject because round characters are complex and undergo development, sometimes sufficiently to surprise the reader. (Flat & Round) Countess Bathory is the epitome of a round character in that we get an account of her turbulent life from a child to adulthood. More important to the comparison the movie portrays periods in her life as an innocent child, a dedicated Protestant ruler, a social butterfly and a cruel tyrant. As a young child, the Countess Bathory suffered at the hands of her mother. Elizabeth witnessed executions and tragedies the normal person may never experience in a medieval lifetime. At 3.50 of the video, the Countess is impregnated by her peasant lover, and she forced to watch his execution. (Delpy 3.50) Unlike Carmilla, the Countess Bathory may have developed manic depression due to the emotional and psychological abuse by her mother. It’s hard to gauge Countess Bathory because in one part of her life you show empathy because she dedicated to preserving the freedom of her people, she shows kindness to servants, and she comes across as a woman destined to liberate all women. Countess Bathory character changed for the worst at the onset of the breakup with her lover Istvan Thurzo. At 40.58 of the video, the Countess receives a forged letter stating that her lover no longer wishes to see her he’s found a younger woman. (Delpy 40.58-42.00) The Countess personality declines to depressing, abusive and pure evil. The Countess is desperate to win back the love of Istvan, so when she abuses her servant and the girl’s blood lands on her face. The Countess imagines that the blood transformed her skin into a younger woman. It’s a turning point to madness and evil because her bloodlust increases and she obtains instruments that would instantaneously kill and draw every drop of blood from victims. At this point of the story, the Countess character is similar to Carmilla because they have no value for life. Both women seek only the blood of a young girl preferably a virgin.


The previous paragraphs show how the two women’s life differs but connect in death. The following paragraph shows how the setting differs yet still connecting in the end. In Countess Carmilla the story is narrated by a young woman preyed upon by a female vampire named Carmilla, later revealed to be Mircalla, Countess Karnstein. (“Carmilla”) The setting for Carmilla is in the town of Styria. Research shows that Styria is a luscious region in the south-east of Austria with vast forest, isolated towns and rich lands for farming and harvesting of wines. (“Styria”)  Styria is an ideal location for a vampire born in the 17th-century vampire. The writers identify the time of the story being a little more than a century after Carmilla birth. The setting is early eighteenth century Europe and the young girls spend much of the time alone. Countess Bathory was born August 7, the territory of Hungary. (Hickey pg. 44) The region of Hungary where Countess Bathory grew up is much like Styria Austria in that the peasants lived in isolated villages controlled by noblemen living in the large medieval structure. The difference is the Karnstein estate as long declined slowly giving into another form of rule. In Elizabeth Bathory era the movie depicts the nobility and church as having divine power to rule the land and enslaves peasants. Elizabeth Bathory power and a threat to society came from wealth and family name. Carmilla power involved the supernatural, innocent beauty and the nightfall. As Elizabeth goes downwards into her depravity, she shuts herself away from society, having only the closest of her gipsy servants to murder and drain the blood of her victims. In fact, her closest friends all had sadistic practices related to Sadomasochism and witchcraft. Like the vampire, the Countess surprises her dirty deeds for protection.   ELIZEBETH BATHORY 2

The author Sheridan Le Fanu uses many themes of vampirism in the novel. For example ruined gothic castles, transformation into a living thing, and ruined church. The story promotes females having same-sex attraction to each other.  The sexual seduction is minor in that the writer hopes to convey the message that the young lady is a blood sucking creature. The writer implies that Carmilla is a lesbian so subtlely. The narrator states she used to place her pretty arms around my neck, draw me to her and laying her cheek next to mine draw me to her and say, if your heart is wounded my wild heart beats with yours. Carmilla would bring her closer and kiss her lightly on cheeks and lips. (Sheridan pg 29) The narrator goes on to state she always felt awkward during these rare embraces and cuddling and small kisses. Female vampires are often seeking the company of a female in gothic writing, but it is the strange dreams that merge with reality, the mysterious gypsy-like characters and the bedroom scenes. The novel Carmilla is written to shock and scare the reader, whereas the movie is depicting the life of Countess Elizabeth Bathory, is presented to educate and understand. The Countess Elizabeth Bathory differs from the vampire because she socialises with more people. Both characters share a sexual attraction for the same sex. In my eyes, Carmilla personality shows her being more comfortable with young women whereas the Countess is open about sexual attraction for men and women. The Countess comes across as a social butterfly a woman to be respected and highly regarded in a time where women had no real rights to power. Here you encounter a powerful woman. The theme in Carmilla is blood, deception and the supernatural; ironically the story of Countess Elizabeth Bathory is the same theme but played out in different circumstances. The Countess does not need blood to survive, but she craves blood to make her feel better. Both use deception, but the Vampires deception of humanity is fear of the sunlight. Elizabeth Bathory deception is to hide from the world, the embarrassment of her social standing. The Countess is interested in witchcraft and Satanism, but a vampire is a form of a demon.  The story of the Countess is pure melancholy and sadness. You the scholar are more saddened that so many innocent women died.  The vampire novel provides an escape to the macabre. The story of Countess Bathory is grotesque horror and gloom.


To conclude, neither character is an innocent victim of society. Ironically, only in death do we realise the true evil in this world.  Carmilla is a wicked manipulator who feeds on the blood of young girls for more than a century. Also, Carmilla is an unwilling victim of a vampire. Who knows the type of person she may have been as a human. Throughout the story, the vampire gives you so much indication that she felt something for Laura who in fact was a distant relative. During her stay with family, many young girls died in the village. It is possible Carmilla occasional drinking of Laura blood is romantic and sexual in nature.  Countess Bathory is on the opposite sphere in that you cannot blame her behaviour on a cruel childhood although she had a tough life up until age fifteen. The Countess had a choice to live her life and make the world a better place for women. In the end, she succumbed to witchcraft, sadomasochism, and murder for misguided intentions. The Countess had choices whereas, the vampire has no choice.






Indigenous Canada




As we approach reading week and I think of all the assignments and presentations due, the journal writings that depict the Indigenous culture and ways of knowing stand out as the most critical dialogue to date in my college career. My readings and documentary films prove that Indigenous people were the key factor in Europeans surviving in the new world. Moreover, the Indigenous stories of creation resemble all stories of creation, and my personal study proves that the Indigenous people were strong and brave men who fought to the end for freedom. The journal introduces various aborigine stories on creation, first contact, the formation of reservations, residential school, the damage created by the government. Our conclusion is a position on whether the various nations will survive and the culture.


They are over 200 Indigenous nations in Canada from the east to west coast and Southern Ontario, Quebec and  Inuit region in Northern and Arctic Canada. The traditional account of the story of creation in the Inuit community is the raven who created the world. The raven who fixed the water in a place with his beak when the waters threatened to overflow the lands from the depths of the earth.  The first land formation had one family in a house. According to the legend,  the father had a bladder hanging over his bed. After much pleading by Raven, the father allowed the boy to play with the bladder. While playing with the bladder, the raven damaged the bladder and light appeared. Today the struggle is between the father and son over the bladder thus creating the day and the night. (Inuit, , n.d.,para 1) The First Nations people have other stories on the creation and the animals. The other creation story is the Ojibway story told by the Anishinaabe-speaking people of Ontario and the  Midwestern United States. The orator in the video states that long ago, after the Great Mystery, or Kitchi-Manitou, first put people on the earth, the Anishinabe, or Original People, strayed from their peaceful ways. Brother turned against brother, and soon the Anishinabe were killing one another over hunting grounds. Seeing that harmony and respect for all living things no longer existed on Earth, Kitchi-Manitou decided to purify the Earth. (YouTube Library, 2011) The great flood took over the world, and only Nanabush survived with the animals who took turns riding on the log. Nanabush had a plan to create land by diving to the bottom of the ocean to grab a patch of land. Nanabush and all the animals tried, however, it was a muskrat who retrieved soil, though dying in the attempt. The turtle who sacrificed himself by having North America grow on his back his a respected member of species on planet earth. Today the Muskrat blessed with living the good life no matter the habitat or weather. Our Indigenous people create stories similar to Greek mythologies,  Hinduism and Christianity. In Christianity water is a symbol of purification such as the Ojibway and other Aborigine myths. It is ignorant how old history books, Hollywood movies, and European societies characterise our brothers and sisters savages. The First nation’s people practised a faith that gave an equal spirit privileges to land and water for all the creatures of creation along with man. Our indigenous people knew the significance of respect for the earth thousands of years before civilised European population. We have a lot to learn from our First Nations people about nature, healthy choices survival in the wilderness. Our next point in Journal discusses the initial contact between Europeans and the people of the First Nations.

Although we have evidence that the Vikings visited North America long before Christopher  Columbus, this journal starts the story from early 1608, and the establishment of Quebec and New France by Samuel De Champlain. By 1608, the French had extended their influence and trade alliances from the east coast of Canada, along with the St Lawrence River and into the Great Lakes and down the Mississipi River. (First Peoples, 2007., para 1) The British settled in the Hudsons Bay and the South is known as the 13 colonies. Trading, politics, and discovery is nothing new to the Indigenous people who had mapped out territories and had an agreement with other nations thousands of years before contact. Our historical accounts depict a story of the indigenous population dying from smallpox and various diseases brought over from Europe. The disease is not lasting. However, colonialism has lasted to the present day.

Canada is a Commonwealth country and the past century has seen nations such as Indian, the African continents and Caribbean gain independence and freedom for their indigenous populations and people descended from slavery. According to Jacqueline M. Lachin, colonialism has never ‘ended’ in Canada; the continuing legacy of colonisation is the egregious economic and political inequality between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Canada has an ongoing practice of ‘internal colonialism’ on the First Nations reserves, and a broader, neo colonial relationship with all Aboriginal peoples in general (Lacchin, 2009, pg 3) Colonialism is theft, subjugation and systemic racism of a group. England interest in the New World revolved around mercantilism. Mercantilism is economic nationalism an idea developed by the French and British to enrich and empower the nation states. Mercantilism enabled the mother country not to demand supplies from competing nations. Ultimately sucking the blood from the lifeline of the New World. Mercantilism is colonialism first son, and it is safe to say France, Holland, Britain, Portugal and Spain exhausted the resources from North to South America and the Caribbean Islands.


By the 1860s, the HBC actively encouraged Native trappers to enter land treaties with the federal government to shift the cost of providing burdensome Native income support to the government; in effect, annual treaty payments constituted an indirect government subsidy to the HBC. (Lacchin, 2009, pg 4) The nineteenth century witnessed a more aggressive position to annexing First Nations lands. In 1867, The British North America Act declared reserved Indian lands the responsibility of the federal government. The government had trapped the Indigenous people on their lands. More important to the story from my research the government had effectively left no lands for Metis speaking people. I recount a story of the Metis population in Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan who had built a homestead on land only to have the government remove them from lands they had farmed for generations because they had not taken out deeds to lands. (Campbell, 1973)  The plot to segregate Metis from Treaty people effectively had Metis marrying white with the belief that Metis will forget their Indigenous heritage. Maria Campbell writes a vivid account of her family history and her connection to the hero of all First Nations people in this day and age Louis Riel.


The next step in the Canadian government colonial policies is the establishment of the residential school system operating from the 1880s into the closing decades of the 20th century. (Indigenous Foundations, 2004. paragraph 1)  The object of the schools is to remove the children from their culture and families, to have them forget their languages and way of livelihood. The problem is the schools provided the children with an inferior education, extremely physical-mental abuse, along with sexual abuse and murder. The government reports indicated more than 6000 children lost their lives in residential schools by 1920.  The government believed and wanted the Indigenous people to die out, and they continued a racist and cruel school system well into the late 20th century. The last residential school did not close its doors until 1986. Many of the leaders, teachers, parents, and grandparents of today’s Aboriginal communities are residential school survivors. (Indigenous Foundations, 2004. paragraph 20)  Furthermore, the Canadian government issued a long-awaited apology. On Wednesday, June 11, 2008, the Prime Minister of Canada, the Right Honourable Stephen Harper, made a Statement of Apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools, on behalf of the Government of Canada. (Gov of Canada, 2010, para 1) The final report showed that the government removed 150000 children removed from their families and communities in the last century. Furthermore, the surviving members and families still suffer the effect of residential schools. The next paragraph will outline the consequence of colonial policies effect on First Nations people.


The outcome of colonialism is devastating to all Canadians, more, our older brother and sisters the first people to settle the land some 10000 years ago. The white settlers introduced alcohol, drugs, and poverty to our First Nations people.  According to Lacchin, colonisers interrupt Native ‘ways of life’, creating a situation of external political control by, economic dependence on the colonial settlers.  Moreover, the colonisers provide the reliant, indigenous population with a substandard quality of social services— keeping them underdeveloped—and justifies this ‘inhuman’ treatment by invoking an ideology of racism. (Lacchin, 2015, pg 5,6) The outcome is a people who have lost a great part of their culture and language. Professor Angela  Mashford-Pringle stated in the course titled, ‘Indigenous ways of knowing, that more than 70% of Indigenous languages are in danger of dying out because the teachers are too old to teach the language. Language is so important with regards to teaching culture and the indigenous way of knowing. The white man introduced drugs, prostitution, alcohol to the weak and poor. Inbred in the psyche of the people are the problems of teenage suicide and the barbaric murders of Aborigine women and young girls. Aborigine communities have the highest unsolved murders and incidents of teen suicides in North America. Studies show that societies, where young people raised by one or no parent along with high poverty and unhealthy conditions, creates a pathway to destruction. The numbers state that nearly one-quarter of First Nations adults reported contemplating suicide at some point in their life, according to a 2008-10 survey by the First Nations Information Governance Centre. These figures stand in contrast to the just 9.1 percent of adults from the general Canadian population who had similar thoughts. (Suicide Among First Nations, 2016, para 1)

Source First Nations Regional Health Study.


In conclusion, Aborigine culture is stronger than it was in the twentieth century. Our colleges and university have begun the process of implementing excellent programs in the study of our Indigenous groups. It’s more than funding; I feel it pride and a national identity will lead our warriors/ brothers and sisters into the 21st century. Gone are the days when people perceived every aborigine people of the reserves as drunks and prostitutes. Then again the previous statement as to be placed in context nationwide. I like the future for our First Nations in that Metis and mixed-blood people who have lived as white for more than a generation is coming out representing the culture and putting effort into keeping the culture alive. The key is to have more people of Indigenous background to become teachers and serve in positions once not readily available to our First Nations people. A prime example being police officers, mayors, counsellors, educators, and artist. It would be nice someday to see a person of First Nations bloodline becoming the Prime Minister. The key is to let people live their dreams. Anything is possible.


Courtney H Duncan












Inuit Myths About Creation. (n.d.) Retrieved from

Youtube (2011, February 27). [The Ojibway Creation Story]. Retrieved from

Canada’s First People. (N.D.) Retrieved from

Lacchin,  Jacqueline, M (2015) Sociological Imagination: Western’s Undergraduate Sociology Student Journal. The ‘Wretched of Canada’: Aboriginal Peoples and Neo-Colonialism.              Issue 1 Sociological Imagination Volume 4 Article 2

Campbell. M (1982). Halfbreed. Omaha, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Indigenous Foundations (2011). The Residential School System. Retrieved from

Statement of apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Shulman, M, Tahirali, J (2016). Suicide among Canada’s First Nations: Key numbers. Retrieved from


First Nations Suicide Rate vs. Non-Aboriginal population (Graph). (2012). Suicide Rate Per 100000 retrieved from

























Dark Prince vs Dracula 1992 movie review

Dark Prince: The True Story of Dracula is a movie based on the historical account of a man who committed horrible crimes towards humanity. The main character in the film is Vlad Tepes a Romanian prince who fights the Ottoman Empire and the rival nobles to regain is title and freedom for people. The film portrays Vlad as a national hero, a barbaric murderer and the Anti- Christ in league with the devil. The purpose of the movie review is to summarize the thesis and compare it to the Hollywood version of Dracula starring Keanu Reeves and Gary Oldman. The conclusion is an outline of how well the film done in the cinema along with my opinion of both films.

In the opening segment of the film, our main character Prince Vlad Tepes is a hero to his people because he fights the powerful people known as the Turks and the traitor noblemen. He never attends church, so the priest summons him to a hearing to defend his life. At the hearing, Vlad tells his story from a young man to an adult life and his death. Vlad father loves him more than his younger brother Radu. Evidence of this love is between 8.43 and 9.00 of the video where his father gives him a sacred ring, making him the trusted heir if he is to die. (Youtube, 2017)  The film portrays his younger as weak in the eyes of the father and possibly a homosexual. The father goes off to fight for his country but he his betrayed by enemies who send his sons to Turkey to serve the sultan. Radu is shown favoritism by the Sultan whereas Vlad is closely watched and imprisoned under harder condition.  Years later Vlad is released to return to the homeland, but he travels to Hungary to seek help from an old friend of his dead father. At 12:10 of the video the storyteller explains how his father was buried alive by the nobles of Romania. (You Tube, 2017)  The King of Hungary gives Vlad money, and he arranges for Vlad to marry a beautiful lady from Romania who had fled to the King of Hungary with her father for protection.  So Vlad returns to his homeland uniting his people, seeking revenge on the nobles who killed his father and waging war on the Turkish ruler. Vlad is a hero the movie portrays him as a hero to the poor and savior to Christians. My research showed me that the rulers of Turkey in that period were known as leaders of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire is an Islamic Empire with much wealth and power in that world at that time. (Woodward, Para 1)  Vlad is a hero to his people and the Christian faith. The next paragraph briefly explains Dracula in the modern versions. 

The current version of Dracula is quite romantic yet thrilling and dark. Gary Oldman portrays Count Dracula, who returns to England in the nineteenth century to seek his long-dead bride, now reincarnated as Keanu Reeves fiancée. The current movie portrays Count Dracula as a romantic man to the ladies, a man of romance with a dark secret. Bram Stoker’s Dracula (or simply Dracula) is a 1992 American romantic horror film directed and produced by Francis Ford Coppola, based on the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker. (Dracula, Para 1) The 1992 movie hold similarities to the real history, but much of the plot is fantasized such as Dracula becoming a vampire after denouncing Christ and drinking the blood of Jesus from the cross. The real account of Vlad Tepe’s life portrays him dying as a hero to some and an anti-Christ to the Church. The romantic Dracula is seen as a love interest to Mina and some of the video and at the end of the movie a man forgiven by God. The end is strange but compelling because he would rather die than have his love suffers centuries of his demonic faith.  The next paragraph explains the villain in the real story of Dracula.

In the real story of Vlad Tepes, he is considered a villain and a tyrant by the noblemen, his wife father, and the church. Historians describe Vlad as the impale known for the exceedingly cruel punishments he imposed as rulers of Wallachia. Impalement was his preferred method of torture; his cruelty has inspired Vlad for the horror character of Dracula. (Vlad T, Para 1) To continue his wife hears rumors of his cruelty and barbaric behavior from her Christian father. She encounters evidence of his brutality with a visit to the town. At the town, she meets men that are impaled on huge stakes and left to die the slow and painful death. Furthermore, the guard who lets her escape to the town because he fell asleep he is impaled on the stake. Many noblemen flee the country including his wife’s father. From 14 minutes and 26 seconds into the movie, Vlad wife Lydia sees eyewitness account of his barbaric acts. (You Tube, 2017) The 1992 version of Count Dracula depicts him as a romantic demon as previously mentioned and a cruel monster who feeds on the blood of innocent victims. The two character hold similar personalities in that they only show mercy for their loyal subjects and woman they love but death and inhumane punishment for the innocent.

The Romanian ministers named Vlad the Anti-Christ. My research shows that society as called countless men in history the anti-Christ. Adolph Hitler, Napoleon, in Chinese history Genghis Khan and his ancestor of the Yuan dynasty have been compared to a demon an Anti –Christ. Vlad Tepes is given the name Anti-Christ because of the thousands of people he killed, but he still gained the love and the trust of the common man. At the ending of the movie, I realized that Vlad real enemy and true power is the Church. Vlad friend is the Hungarian king, but his wife father frames Vlad, and the Hungarian King imprisons him for a long time. Eventually, he releases Vlad, on condition that he gives up his Eastern Orthodox religion for Roman Catholic. The Eastern Christian religion is characterized by its continuity with the apostolic church, its liturgy, and its national churches. Its adherents live mainly in the Balkans, Greece, the Middle East, and former Soviet countries. (Meyendorff, 2017, Para 1) The true of Dracula, Vlad explains to the Eastern Church leaders that he renounced his faith for the pope. (You Tube, 2017) The Eastern Minister calls him the Messiah or Christ. It is no Christ they believe him to be the false God or son of the Devil. The minister reveals in his record books that he killed more than 10000 people. The minister at 1 hour and 13 minutes into the video state that, Vlad only salvation is to renounce Catholicism. (You Tube, 2017) In the end, the Eastern Church killed Vlad by tricking him into a meeting with his brother Radu and the Turks. It is a sad ending for Vlad because he realizes it is the Church who sacrifices men who fight the Sultan. The Eastern Church killed Vlad. The Dracula movie from 1992, portrays, Count Dracula or Vlad Tepes as the son of the devil or dark prince because he turned away from God to choose eternal life with Satan. Dracula heartbroken because he lost his wife who committed suicide thinking him dead.  The Vlad in 1992 movie, can change into rats and demons and walk in the day with protective glasses and weak sunlight. The difference is one chooses dark secrets of Satan whereas the other is a man who committed had many followers, but he committed many barbaric murders.

In conclusion, the story of Count Dracula received a 60% vote of liking the movie. Most people felt that it had some real action and historical facts.  One person rated as quoted from the site, “I thought this was a vampire film. Nevertheless, I watched the whole thing. I thought it was pretty good for what it was a historical / horror film. (Rotten Tomatoes, 2017) Bram Stoker Dracula is well received in that 80% of the people thought this to be an excellent movie. One of the critics a man named Richard Corliss stated that the luscious film restores the creature’s nobility and gives him peace. (Rotten Tomatoes, 2017)  My final thoughts I liked the modern version of the vampire tale from 1992 because the creature at times he is romantic with his lady. Furthermore, the movie is exciting. My thoughts on the actual story of Dracula is the sadness of the film and how primitive life was so many years ago. I enjoyed the assignment and the movies.

Shambleau A Journal Analysis



Shambleau is the first story published by C. L. Moore in the November 1933 issue of weird tales. To many fans of the genre,  C.L. Moore is the uncrowned Grand Wizard of science fiction and fantasy.  Had she been in good health and not died in 1987 she would be the first female Grand Wizard. To date, we have 33 Grand Wizards, and only 5 of them are women. It says much about her writing and recognition from colleagues. Shambleau is a brilliant short story because the tale entwined itself with perfection and imperfection.  So subtle is the blending you the reader gain insight into a mythological creature once perceived as a monster but illogically garnering sympathy and erotic fantasies by our confused hero and the reader. The purpose of this writing journal is to analyze the perfection and imperfection of the classic short story Shambleau, ultimately explaining how it maintains its brilliance with the gradation of imperfection.  My conclusion or final analyses will point to if the story still stands up to the fantasy and science fiction narrative developed today.


From the abstract, the reader is aware that one of the characters or many may be a form of a vampire, however, not in the conventional satanic evil forming of traditional vampires. The perfection is ultimately adhering to the science fiction and combining the earthly demonic vampire and mythological Gorgon. Moore’s introductory paragraph is perfection the following direct long quote illustrates her skill for combining words into a poetic wisdom with symbolic meanings to come forth.


“ “Shambleau! Ha. Shambleau!” The wild hysteria of the mob rocketed from wall to wall of Lakkdarol’s narrow streets, and the storming of heavy boots over the slag-red pavement made an ominous undertone to that swelling bay, “Shambleau! Shambleau!”Northwest Smith heard it coming and stepped into the nearest doorway, laying a weary hand on his heat gun’s grip, and his colorless eyes narrowed.Strange sounds were common enough in the streets of Earth’s latest colony on Mars—a raw, red little town where anything might happen, and very often did. But Northwest Smith, whose name is known and respected in every dive and wild outpost on a dozen wild planets, was a cautious man, despite his reputation. He set his back against the wall and gripped his pistol, and heard the rising shout come nearer and nearer.” (Wolf. 1999, PG 137)

Moore’s wants the reader to envision a new world with new creatures along with subtle hints of interbreeding between earth people and alien beings.  We ‘re well into the future of space travel, but the writer takes us back to the nineteenth century American wild west spacemen style.  As I’m reading, I envision the rustic red planet and windy deserts along with bawdy hotels where mixed breed beings aliens entertain the men much like the saloon girls of the old wild west.  I love the protagonist Northwest Smith bravado and his  Lone Ranger attitude in sticking up for the demure and cat-like entity.  It is brilliant how the Shambleau goes from a female in distress to sexual attraction to antagonist.  Moreover, the look of horror when the colonist accepts the spaceman Northwest willingness to help the girl. The colonist look of degradation upon Northwest raises so many questions on what kind of abominable act he may commit with the creature known as Shambleau. Northwest likens the reception to himself committing cannibalism or something unclean in the eyes of God. On page 140 the crowd disperses after Northwest claims the girls belongs to him.  However, he notices something deeper and more rooted than that. Instinctive, utter disgust had been in the faces he saw—they would have looked less so if he had admitted cannibalism or {Pharol-worship}. Like Northwest we the readers become curious to what secrets the exotic alien owns. Perfection achieved by blending the expected and unexpected and not knowing if the expected is the unexpected. For example, the conversation between the two,  Shambleau answers Northwest question by stating, “ my people—are—are—you have no word. Your speech—hard for me.”What’s yours? I might know it—try me.”She lifted her head and met his eyes squarely, and there was in hers subtle amusement—he could have sworn it.”Someday I—speak to you in—my own.”

You’re under the impression they are going to meet again in other stories.  Nothing prepares you for the ending though expected unexpected ultimately bringing out the flaws and brilliance of imperfection.



Imperfection or deficiencies are ultimately leaving you wanting more and feeling cheated. I believe Shambleau should have escaped after all she is immortal. Hence we come to our first flaw because Medusa is a mortal woman who is cursed by Athena. Medusa dies at the hands of Perseus.  Medusa had two sisters who were immortal Euryale and Stheno. The story would have presented more intrigue if they hid the opening title and used Euryale or Stheno as the Shambleau an immortal to turn men to stone, drain their blood or give them the pain of immortality.  To continue Moore could have worked her magic placing more importance on the strange odour as an aphrodisiac to weaken the mind of men and open them to all pleasures pure and unpure that life has to offer. A strange scent is known to Martians citizens as the odor of death. A powerful female demon who creates havoc every 50 years or so it would present a case for Northwest ignorance of the Shambleau. Another imperfection is the mob’s bravery in numbers. The citizens are becoming the hunters. It seemed weak in that the abstract talks of vampires and Gorgon’s as possessing invisible gifts yet still the men were able to seek out a demon for execution.  Moore leaves out important details such as the word {pharol} you get a sense it is an unclean act opposite to all that is good. I imagine bestiality, incest, cannibalism pedophilia being a {pharol} act.


Nonetheless, the imperfections emanate perfection. C.L. Moore brings a woman’s touch and expertise in weaving words into poetic ecstasy and a hint of forbidden sex with an alien being something not human-beast-but more worldly and erotically more sexual and violent than humanity. Although the creature is a young girl, you get the sense she is older than time itself. Although the Martian colonist perceives her as an unclean inferior animal, you have a sense her culture and species may be more advanced than known civilizations.  Finally, the character of the Venusian {Yarol} appears to be too redundant in explaining what we know already of the legend of Medusa. He saved his friend by avoiding eye contact with the Gorgon. It seems impossible one man could survive such a peril without previous knowledge of his nemesis behind the unopened door.  I so much would have appreciated the Gorgon upon hearing the footsteps of the Venusian disappear out the window with cat-like stealth. Shambleau senses were keen throughout the story until the end. The ending of the story is premature and inconsistent to the path the tale took. I would have liked the demon escaping and Northwest encountering Shambleau in other stories.

In conclusion, Northwest does appear in other stories of Moore. However, the tale of Shambleau ends. A sequel to Shambleau never materialized. However, the story stands the test of time, and the imperfections blend well with its perfection.  A woman has the courage to take the directive and change sci-fiction and fantasy forever. C.L Moore truly is an iconic figure within women liberation.  Moore is the mother of science fiction and where every author such as Anne Rice recognizes her genius by adding her style in many of her novels.  C.L  Moore reminds me of Virginia Woolf one particular novel Orlando. I ‘m certain Virginia  Woolf may have been one of her icons. Maybe just maybe the author left Shambleau for future generations of writers to develop.

By Courtney Duncan

APA (American Psychological Assoc.)
Wolf, L. (1999). Blood Thirst: 100 Years of Vampire Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Conditions under which people obey authority and commit actions which go against conscience by Courtney Duncan


The essay proves that ruling power impacts our lives in more way than one. However, it is used to oppress and support groups of people in society commonly known depicted as Middle to lower class. The purpose of this essay is to prove that we as citizens subjugate ourselves to State laws and religious doctrines. The composition incorporates the study of Stanley Milgram, Phillip Zimbardo, a comparison of Nazi Germany, various readings and videos. My conclusion supports the statement that authority and compliance in our state are ultimate, controlled by groups of individuals known as the elite upperclassmen.

Keywords: [nazism, Stanford Experiment, Obedience ]

The Conditions under which people obey authority and commit actions which go against conscience.

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Obedience is a form of social influence where an individual performs an order under the command of someone with authority. Compliance is the hierarchical laws dating back from the time of antiquity. Obedience or compliance is the direct result of the power figure or structure implementation of legislation to govern their state. The formations of law are passed by our government ultimately influencing economics, history, politics, and society. Our government implements judicial doctrines to protect our rights as citizens to live in a perfect utopian society where everyone can develop to their potential. In the study of psychology, I learned that obeying authority is not always the right thing to do. On many occasions in history, a ruling power uses its official position to make a person question his or her conscience to obey that authority. A prime example would be the Nazi regime, and the crimes of atrocities Hitler regime committed to Jewish people and mixed-blooded white Europeans known as gypsies. Consequently, the essay complies that people obey authority in respect of the ruling political party, social and economic factors. Any actions action that goes against his or her conscience is influenced out of fear, obeying the rule and just rewards. The essay proves that ruling power impacts our lives in more way than one. However, it is used to oppress and support groups of people in society commonly known depicted as Middle to lower class. The purpose of this essay is to prove that we as citizens subjugate ourselves to State laws and religious doctrines. The composition incorporates the study of Stanley Milgram, Phillip Zimbardo, a comparison of Nazi Germany, various readings and videos. My conclusion supports the statement that authority and compliance in our state are ultimate, controlled by groups of individuals known as the elite upperclassmen.

Ruling Political Party-State Government

Stanley Milgram article titled, The Behavioral Study of Obedience, is the overall analysis of destructive obedience and authority of power in our society. The study is an understanding of our social environment and how things can turn ugly because of compliance to rules. Milgram experiment is one imprudent answer to what went wrong in Nazi Germany. In the article Milgram states Obedience is a fundamental element in the structure of social life as one can point to some system of authority is a requirement for communal living, and it is only the man dwelling in isolation which is forced to respond to defiance or submission to the commands of others. Obedience as a determent of behavior is of particular importance to our time. (Behavioural Study, 1962, para 1). The study is unethical to link a series of studies to the millions of people who died in gas chambers. As stated in Gas article chambers were built, death camps guarded, the daily quota of corpses produced with an efficiency as the manufacture of appliances. (Behavioural Study, 1962, para 1). You as the reader of this essay must remember that it took millions of German soldiers to implement the plan.   How did humanity degenerate to such squalor and is there a connection with Milgram experiment? There is a small link on completing the research. Nonetheless, painful shock treatments as opposed to the horrific death scene in countries camps this is an irrational connection. The only connection is an understanding that man’s life on planet earth is a history of cruel and inhumane punishment of the weaker sect. Society teaches us that the weak dies for our social world to evolve ultimately, one must suffer for the other to multiple. Obedience and Compliance is a part of our genetic disposition handed down from one generation to the next. Our instinct tells us to obey and comply. For example, Milgram study implies that we have no control over our life. The man is more concerned about the future and new technologies than to show empathy to the weak. The Nazi soldiers trained in a regime where it meant death to disobey an order of the superior. Therefore, Nazi atrocities adhere to men committing barbaric acts out of fear for life. Moreover, German citizens were weaned into Nazi Party that blamed the demise of Europe on the Jews.

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Obedience and authority cover religious values. Religion is the absolute power to identify the man in society. The leading religions Christianity, Islam and Sikhism all revere obedience and authority. Milgram states that obedience is ennobling and educative and refer to acts of charity and kindness as well as destruction. (Behavioural Study, 1962, para 2). Our religious houses conform to authority and power only to use power to instill obedience to allow Canon laws to govern us with state law. The experiment allowed people to administer shocks to subjects under the context of a learning experiment, ostensibly set up to study the effects of punishment on memory. (Behavioural Study, 1962, p 372). The test allowed the person to administer shocks at the level of danger. Some of the subjects received the level death shock. However, some administer protested as the risk level approached. Milgram states that behavior before the person delivering danger level is considered “obedience,” in that subject complies with the command of the experiment. The point of rupture or protest is the act of disobedience. A quantitate value assigned to a person’s performance based on the level of shock he is willing to administer. (Behavioural Study, 1962, p372). The experiment truthfully implies that obedience is a natural pattern in all beings life globally. It is a universal and vital feature of our life. When obedience crosses with obeying the rules and just rewards. It is easy to control a person to the whims of a figure with authority to pass command.   Milgram states each subject paid whether they participated in an experiment or chose not to participate. (Behavioural Study, 1962, p 373). The person in control of test played by a 31-year-old articulate high school teacher.

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The victim was a 47-year-old working class Irish-American stock whom observers find mild-mannered and likeable. (Behavioural Study, 1962, p 373). To continue the 1960s differs drastically from our current era. Discipline in schools was a common occurrence. A student is beaten with a cane or whip for being late to class, not completing homework or talking out in a classroom. Today’s society protects young people from this form of abuse in school and at homes. Moreover, the subject receiving the shock treatment is conceived as someone of lower intelligence and social status. I believe social status conforms to man’s evolutionary gene pool and political perception that the higher class benefits by punishing or destroying the weak. In this experiment, the person administering is justly rewarded like the subject receiving shock treatments. The job to administer punishment serves to help society to improve the status of a working class citizen. He is smarter than the subject receiving the shock treatment, and it will only contribute to making life better for this man offspring. The experiment success owes to the misguided belief of the person administering the shock treatment. Fear factor comes into the analysis when the danger levels of pain increases and the person believe that the subject is experiencing significant pain. He fears that the man may die, and he would be an accomplice in a murder. Milgram experiment sufficiently entails that just reward, obeying the rule is the essential contribution to the success of the case study. Fear is defining factor in operation halting. The research proves millions of Jews and Gypsies died out of fear by Germans to help them. Moreover, obeying commands that seem ethical if given a just reward demonstrates that a group in power with laws implemented can manipulate people to do their bidding. Hitler led a nation out of debt owed from the previous world war. The people revered him as the {FUHRER} or saviour. The manipulation of the Bible served to instill in Germans a sense of Aryan pride. Humankind perilous destruction is a result of the poor desolate regions of the ethnic world. Along with minor Jewish and gypsy strain to weaken Aryan gene pool. The initial victories and rise in status of Germany in Europe blinded the people to the truth.   The Milgram experiment similarity is shocking. However, it does show differences. The defining variable involves a person receiving a dangerous shock. The similarities curtail the experiment is for humanity, the shock treatment inevitably a base for scientific knowledge. I ask myself would Milgram experiment been a success or even possible if the males and females are administering shock treatment knew that the subject would die if he received another shock? With this defining thought, I cannot conceive that people carry a gene or trait to commit acts of barbarity. Authority and obedience are part of our lives none more so with relations to our economy, Judicial, and prisons.

Social Factors 1

The class structure, a person’s economic status usually implies all the majority of men and women in prisons evolve from the middle to lower class population. Phillip G Zimbrano conducted a prison experiment from Stanford University in 1971. (Zimbardo, Maslach and Haney, 2000, PG. 1) Zimbardo research explores whether brutality reported among guards in penitentiaries owes to the bad traits of the guards or having more to do with the prison atmosphere. The second cohorts endured six days and nights of intense, often hostile, interactions that escalated daily in the level of interpersonal aggression of guards against prisoners. An example of hostility occurring repeatedly, this statement: “During the inspection ‘the prisoner’ grabbed my throat, I was scared, and I lashed out with my stick and hit him in the chin.” (Zimbardo, Maslach and Haney, 2000, PG. 1) The article and video imply that if a prisoner gives in to his power figure, he has at the mercy of the system. Jewish people in Nazi death camps willing went soon after the Nazi tortured, experimented on them and grotesquely burned millions in incinerators. The researcher randomly assigned cohorts task of prisoner or jail keeper.

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The case study followed the path of a convict to the exact point. They were blindfolded, strip searched and hosed down with water. Zimbardo witnessed the behavior of the inmates and guards (taking notes) and acted as the warden. The prisoners lost the will to rebel soon conforming, and obeying the power figure. The experiment is unique because it opened the world of psychology to new cosmos. I believe people place themselves in a subjugated role due to our outdated constitutional laws. Behind bars rich or poor you have no control of vast wealth or freedom to choose. Once a person sees the situation, he complies out of fear, obeying the rules and just rewards. The just reward could be free cigarettes, contraband drugs or not being beaten. Nazi death camps prisoners who follow or spied on the prisoners for guards they may have received the generous helping of foods or having the life for one more day. Where is the weakness in Zimbrano experiment? The experiment has me questioning the toughness of college students. For example, this experiment may not have worked on all convicts. In the real world, the correctional officer understands the limitation of his power and the hierarchical structure of prisoners. Many people speak of the danger of being a corrections officer. Research show that over 10000 correctional officers are killed every year in American prisons. (Konda, Tiesman, Reichard and Dan Hartley, para. 1) Although more convicts die in American prisons, the statistic implies obedience, conforming has many levels of a person economic status, ethnicity, social background, occupation, and status. Living in prison is difficult prisoners have their own sexual, test of strength all based on a hierarchical social structure similar to the outside world.

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Economic Factors. It is impossible to live our lives away from other human beings. People are social creatures adapting to changes and connecting with opposite sex for stimulation, warmth, and procreation influenced by conformity, compliance, and obedience. An infant is born into the world with adults who have an impact on the baby’s actions, personality, and growth. Adults interact with each other, and such interactions directly influence the thoughts and actions of our children and members of the community. (Ciccarelli, White, Fritzley and Harrigan. 2016, p. 356). Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behavior to fit in with a group. Solomon Asch is the definitive researcher on conformity. Asch test proved that if everyone chooses an incorrect answer, the lone participant in study complies with the wrong answer. The experiment social setting indirectly establishes a connection to Nazi German citizen’s obedience to the evil regime. Germany economy strengthens ultimately, winning over millions of citizens believing the masses cannot be wrong.   Compliance is similar to obedience because it changes one behavior at the direct order of an authority figure. (Ciccarelli, White, Fritzley and Harrigan. 2016, p. 360). For example, your parents telling you to stop smoking, clean room or paint the fences. Moreover, your supervisor, teacher, judge or police who has the right to demand certain behavior from people under the figure power command. (Ciccarelli, White, Fritzley and Harrigan. 2016, p. 360). The man or woman with authority commands. Authority, obedience, and compliance is a divine power not used correctly. I identify nineteenth-century psychologist Sigmund Freud.

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He noted finding many cases in which clear memories of childhood sexual abuse were based more on imagination than on real events. During the late 1890s Freud, who never abandoned his belief in the sexual etiology of neuroses, began to emphasize fantasies built around the Oedipus complex as the primary cause of hysteria and other neurotic symptoms (Gomes, 2016). The essay proves when power is abused individual ignore the problem to protect the patriarchy or power head. Freud reasoning is hiding an embarrassing situation within the community, because of the superiority and ethnic dominance of the society. Nazi German leaders did everything to hide Hitler’s evil and madness. Nobody mentions German citizens who fled Fuhrer regime before the war or aided European Jews. Our social network adheres to infinite rules on dating, choices of reading materials, sex, and fashion. Society essential fuel is sex, love and economic status. Sex result in mutual, consensual, bondage, consensual rape and many other themes less are graphic. Domination and submission, an apparent connection to compliance, obedience, and authority. Our cultures state humankind must respect all citizens. Who judges if a woman or man complies with sexual fantasies resulting in their death? Going back to Nazi German, it is conceivable that soldiers and scientist found a sexual gratification in torturing and killing individuals. The following stanza taken from the article, Nazi War Crimes is outlined below. The material contains sequences of reports of acts of sexual sadism that modern-day readers would find them difficult to bear. As a rule, they are told in the third person, a tactic that the teller uses to distance himself from the story he is telling. Sometimes he also makes it clear that what he saw or heard disgusts him.Reimbold: “In the first officers’ prison camp, there was a stupid guy fromFrankfurt, a young lieutenant, a young upstart. There were eight of us sitting around a table and talking about Russia. And he said: ‘Oh, we caught this female spy who had been running around in the neighborhood. First, we hit her in the tits with a stick and then we beat her rear end with a bare bayonet.

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Then we fucked her, and then we threw her outside and shot at her. When she was lying there on her back, we threw grenades at her. Every time one of them landed near her body, she screamed.’ And just think, eight German officers were sitting at that table with me, and they all broke out laughing. I couldn’t stand it anymore, so I got up and said: Gentlemen, this is too much.” The outrage some felt over the sexual practices of some of their comrades had exceptions, however. When it came to stories of sex with Jewish women, there were no limits. As a rule, all sexual contact with Jews was forbidden, even in the Wehrmacht. The military leadership gave no quarter to “racial defilement.” But this didn’t stop the soldiers from sexually assaulting Jewish women, or to claim to offer protection in return for sex. Many of the women were shot afterwards to prevent them from incriminating the soldiers. (Fleischhauer, 2011, pg. 4)   In pornography, sex, violence and debauchery go hand in hand. Pornography is socially acceptable if viewed by adults. Pornography is socially acceptable because it’s lucrative organization making billions of dollars per year. Our social culture mires itself on fear, obeying the rule and just rewards. The fear of punishment distributed by a parent, following rules of the law out of fear of being killed or charged. Police murder of innocent black teens. The just reward is allowance money from patriarchy or matriarchy. Ignore the evil and debauch article and videos because they sell. Money and the economy go hand in hand.

Conclusions. My findings construe that obedience or obeying authority has no genetic genes strain. My results point to fear and the levels of fear men and women encounter may have genetic influences. The genetic strains were constantly cross-breeding thorough billion of people every day a baby conceived. The strongest the toughest benefit from their culture and the cultures they meet. The poor lower class serve to protect our world. Today poorer and middle-class people enlist in the army, it is an opportunity to make a better life, though a dangerous risk. From the beginning of time, the state classified the poor as peasants, slaves in gladiator rings. The captured noble warrior loses privileges aligning himself with low caste. The educated noblemen, the wealthy minister landowner since antiquity these groups have taken spiritual laws, state laws and liberal doctrines to manipulate society. A person obeys and conforms to his whim or will. The Upper-class is evidently calling the shot.