1n 1856, laborers working in a limestone quarry in the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, Germany, dug up some unusual-looking bones. Subsequent study revealed that they belonged to a previously unknown species of humans, similar to, but distinct from our own species, Homo sapiens. The newly discovered hominid was named Neanderthal—thal is Old German for valley—and has fascinated anthropologists ever since.
It was first thought that Neanderthals may have resembled apes—with stooped posture and bent knees—more closely than modern humans. Then, in the 1950s, Smithsonian anthropologist Ralph Solecki, a team from Columbia University and Kurdish workers unearthed the fossilized bones of eight adult and two infant Neanderthal skeletons—spanning burials from 65,000 to 35,000 years ago—at a site known as the Shanidar cave, in the Kurdistan area of northern Iraq. The discovery changed our understanding of Neanderthals.
The early hominids walked upright and possessed a more sophisticated culture than had previously been assumed. One of the skeletons, excavated in 1957, is known simply as Shanidar 3. The male Neanderthal lived 35,000 to 45,000 years ago, was 40 to 50 years old and stood about 5-foot-6. Shanidar 3 now resides at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, showcased inside a highly secure glass enclosure that Rick Potts, director of the museum’s Human Origins Program, describes as a “fossil treasure case.” Shanidar 3, Potts adds, “is the Hope Diamond of the Human Origins collection, and we treat it accordingly.”
Solecki’s pioneering studies of the Shanidar skeletons and their burials suggested complex socialization skills. From pollen found in one of the Shanidar graves, Solecki hypothesized that flowers had been buried with the Neanderthal dead—until then, such burials had been associated only with Cro-Magnons, the earliest known H. sapiens in Europe. “Someone in the last Ice Age,” Solecki wrote, “must have ranged the mountainside in the mournful task of collecting flowers for the dead.” Furthermore, Solecki continued, “It seems logical to us today that pretty things like flowers should be placed with the cherished dead, but to find flowers in a Neanderthal burial that took place about 60,000 years ago is another matter.” Skeletons showed evidence of injuries tended and healed—indications that the sick and wounded had been cared for. Solecki’s attitude toward them was encapsulated in the title of his 1971 book, Shanidar: The First Flower People.
Drawing on Solecki’s research, writer Jean Auel mixed fiction and archaeology in her novel, The Clan of the Cave Bear, a 1980 bestseller that humanized, if not glamorized, Neanderthals. In the book, the clan members adopt an orphaned Cro-Magnon child, who comprehends things beyond their ken, foreshadowing the Neanderthals’ fate. Out-competed by the Cro-Magnon, Neanderthals would become extinct.
According to Potts, climate change was the instrument of their demise. Around 33,000 years ago, the Neanderthal, who migrated south from their northernmost range in Central Europe as glaciers advanced, settled in the wooded regions of Iberia (present-day Spain and Portugal) and Gibraltar. There, they flourished, possibly until 28,000 years ago, when they were supplanted by a supremely adaptable competitor—the resilient Cro-Magnon.
Cro-Magnon groups, says Potts, who were “aided by their ability to make warmer, more form-fitting clothing, had already moved into the Neanderthals’ former territories.” Thus, Potts adds, “Modern humans gained a foothold they never relinquished.” The Neanderthals lived in ever smaller and more isolated areas—suffering what we now call loss of habitat—eventually vanishing from the earth.
“The Neanderthals were smart,” Potts says. “They had brains the same size as Cro-Magnon and were very clever at using local resources. They lacked the ability to expand their thinking and adapt to changing conditions.”
Shanidar 3’s own story, however, is grounded not in large evolutionary forces but in particular circumstances. “There is quite a severe and deep cut to a rib on [Shanidar 3’s] left side,” says Potts. “This cut would have been deep enough to collapse his lung, so Shanidar 3 is the oldest known individual who could have been murdered.”
Owen Edwards is a freelance writer and author of the book Elegant Solutions.
Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/The-Skeletons-of-Shanidar-Cave.html#ixzz2MGtA4K9V
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for speculation on Neanderthal – modern human connections, see The Silk Code
I will check this out…….Where did you think Neanderthal actually came from…Modrn man has we know came from Africa and into European fertile grounds as Ice AGe susbisded…..Mr Levinson do you believe that the two groups met each other…is it possible we have Neanderthal genes within us…indicated that some Neanderthal women may have been raped and possibly homosapien women may have been carried away by Neanderthal…incredible tale …or facts? Courtney you are welcome to post something send to my email
I’ve thought for decades that Neanderthals were far more advanced than we give them credit for – that’s what The Silk Code http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0091W43JW is all about. And, yes, evidence now shows that modern humans have 2-percent or more of DNA identical to Neanderthals. But that doesn’t mean that rape was involved. For all we know, Neanderthals and early modern humans found each other attractive.
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I thought it was now generally accepted that most people possess Neanderthal genes and that Neanderthals and homo sapiens have a common ancestry. Correct me if I’m wrong on either of these points. Two works of fiction explore Neanderthal/sapiens relationships: H.G.Wells’s short story The Grisly Folk and Golding’s novel The Inheritors.
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Yes, and my novel, The Silk Code (see my comment above from 2013), also explores Neanderthal/sapien relationships.
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I’ll purchase your book it has rave reviews. Your more than intelligent person, however, don’t take this to the heart or look too deeply because my next article is on study evolution how its fueled racism. take a look at this link https://www.ferris.edu/HTMLS/news/jimcrow/letters/2012/apes.htm He also reiterated Huxley’s prescient inference, grounded in the distribution of the especially humanlike African apes, that the last shared ancestor of people and apes lived in tropical Africa. My point Darwin correct in placing man in Africa however, 19th century equates black men and apes having a common ancestor. The European not evolving from Africa without finding Euro common ancestor. Neanderthal discovered after they died however, first Neantherthal skull discovered 1829 and dismissed. The neanderthal man finally accepted as man missing direct ancestor anthropology is thrown into the background until the 21st century. For centuries the civilised world documented and legalised teachings only to encounter an embarrassment. An embarrassment to a racist who pushed the Negro is ugly and a dumb lazy offspring of an APE. Neanderthal wrongly classified as dumb apes men and you are smarter. Man migrated out of Africa they would have been darker because of the heat men encountered Neantherthals some lived in unison and some fought for hunting and living quarters. Possibility neanderthal women are raped or captured used as short term wives. Neanderthal-inherited genetic material is found in all non-African populations and was initially reported to comprise 1 to 4 per cent of the genome. This fraction was later refined to 1.5 to 2.1 per cent. It is estimated that 20 per cent of Neanderthal DNA currently survives in modern humans. That said agreed that some who mixed with neanderthal migrated back to Africa still far lower percentage to have no significant impact on how most of mankind white Indian or black react to society. I’ll agree without any knowledge that a percentage of our human population may have higher Neanderthal DNA these humans may be larger bigger boned stronger. It may occur in features I don’t know. I state since slavery white and black have mixed beds the white owner picking his favourite black woman and that intermingling and interracial relationships across the globe will bring the gene to every race in the globe. In conclusion poor countries of Africa the African regions where they have never been able to connect socially with the European that group is significantly lower or next to none as the case of Africa. This gene in white people is an extremely low high possibility not every man migrated out of Africa and changed with climate rutted in a hut with a neanderthal woman or the movie Clan of Cave bear where human woman raped. If you accept Neatherthal another intelligent race that had advantages and obvious disadvantages and we survived, however, racism as played a significant impact in research and understanding the truth.
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I’ll purchase your book I heard there is more to the book than revealed.
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