Month: April 2009

Our club has  been ratified by the York Federation of Students.

Check the site for the upcoming party in early May everyone invited catered to the T-baby All you readers in Dubai West Africa-Calfornia-Oklahoma and of course York University come on down baby we are moving on up. 

By being ratified by the York Federation of Students you will be
granted to a number of services such as:
? Club Funding (up to $600 per event)
? Free Photocopying
? Free Club Website
? Usage of Popcorn Machine
? Free Mailboxes
? Help with Opening a Bank Account
? General Help

Ratification forms can be found at under the section
entitled ?YFS Club Ratification?.
These forms were initially due on September 30 2008 however; as it is
the first year that these forms have been required the deadline has
been extended to Friday April 24, 2009 6:00p.m.
All completed forms can be mailed to/ dropped off to the YFS office,
336 Student Centre.

I strongly encourage you to submit the ratification forms for you club
to access the many services that are provided as well as to make a
smooth transition for your new incoming executives.

Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions,

Loveleen Kang
VP Operations
York Federation of Students
Local 68, Canadian Federation of Students

General Office: 416.736.5324
Direct Line: 416.736.2100 x.40536
Mobile: 647.895.2102
Fax: 416.736.5827

336 Student Centre, York University
4700 Keele Street
Toronto, ON M37 1P3




Remembering The Brits and the Euro New Wave Scene

The Specials video-link below.   “Ghost Town”


Fun Boy Three video-link “The Lunatics have taken the assylum”

Fun Boy Three video-link  “Our Lips are Sealed”

A muscian once said these words to me. He said “Count- AKA Blacula” The music scene is lacking. He then wanted to find out what the British invasion and new ave really was. The British invasion is still felt today in the uderground and lets say avante garde scene. Yeah Trash Metal, Euro Dance, Techno, and House musciv. Today so many musicians bite samples from this invasion-Only us Counts of the Cathars faith can educate you. So here we go-The Specials (sometimes called The Special AKA) are an English 2 Tone ska revival band formed in 1977 in Coventry. They have had hits in the United Kingdom, and their music is featured in film and television soundtracks. After seven consecutive UK Top 10 singles between 1979 and 1981, the band broke up.

The Specials-Coventry England
The Specials-Coventry England


In 1981 Fun Boy Three were a short-lived but successful English band which ran from 1981 to 1983 and was formed by singers Terry Hall, Neville Staple and Lynval Golding after they left The Specials.

They dispensed with the darker, moody sound and demeanour which they and Jerry Dammers had crafted with great success in the ska revival of the late 1970s and went into a much brighter, poppier phase with this new band, though maintaining savagery and wit within the lyrics and Hall’s wholly expressionless persona.

Together, they set about making music which covered a variety of genres. The band enjoyed six UK Top 20 hits, including the jungle-drum-inspired “The Lunatics (Have Taken Over the Asylum)” and the brassy, cynical anthem “Tunnel of Love” and created two albums of which the eponymous Fun Boy Three was the most successful.

The trio’s last UK hit was the song “Our Lips Are Sealed” from album Waiting, co-written by Terry Hall and Jane Wiedlin of The Go-Go’s, who had scored a U.S. hit with the song a year earlier. They then toured the United States and split afterwards.

  1. They were also credited with helping launch the career in 1982 of Bananarama, whom Hall first saw in The Face magazine. The three women provided credited chorus vocals on the hit “T’ain’t What You Do (It’s the Way That You Do It)“; the Fun Boy Three later sang on the Bananarama song “Really Saying Something“.
    Fun Boy Three
    Fun Boy Three



Hall went on to create the short-lived project The Colourfield, who had one hit in 1985, before forming less successful bands Vegas and Terry, Blair & Anouchka. He also embarked on a solo career and maintains respect from musicians and fans alike, with many acts citing him as an influence.

Writer-The Count Aka Blacula.

You Are Being Lied to About Pirates

By Johann Hari     


CNN Video Somali pirates

Huffington Post” — Who imagined that in 2009, the world’s governments would be declaring a new War on Pirates? As you read this, the British Royal Navy – backed by the ships of more than two dozen nations, from the US to China – is sailing into Somalian waters to take on men we still picture as parrot-on-the-shoulder pantomime villains. They will soon be fighting Somalian ships and even chasing the pirates onto land, into one of the most broken countries on earth. But behind the arrr-me-hearties oddness of this tale, there is an untold scandal. The people our governments are labeling as “one of the great menace of our times” have an extraordinary story to tell — and some justice on their side.

April 12, 2009 ”

Pirates have never been quite who we think they are. In the “golden age of piracy” – from 1650 to 1730 – the idea of the pirate as the senseless, savage thief that lingers today was created by the British government in a great propaganda-heave. Many ordinary people believed it was false: pirates were often rescued from the gallows by supportive crowds. Why? What did they see that we can’t? In his book Villains of All nations, the historian Marcus Rediker pores through the evidence to find out. If you became a merchant or navy sailor then – plucked from the docks of London’s East End, young and hungry – you ended up in a floating wooden Hell. You worked all hours on a cramped, half-starved ship, and if you slacked off for a second, the all-powerful captain would whip you with the Cat O’ Nine Tails. If you slacked consistently, you could be thrown overboard. And at the end of months or years of this, you were often cheated of your wages.

Pirates were the first people to rebel against this world. They mutinied against their tyrannical captains – and created a different way of working on the seas. Once they had a ship, the pirates elected their captains, and made all their decisions collectively. They shared their bounty out in what Rediker calls “one of the most egalitarian plans for the disposition of resources to be found anywhere in the eighteenth century.” They even took in escaped African slaves and lived with them as equals. The pirates showed “quite clearly – and subversively – that ships did not have to be run in the brutal and oppressive ways of the merchant service and the Royal navy.” This is why they were popular, despite being unproductive thieves.

The words of one pirate from that lost age – a young British man called William Scott – should echo into this new age of piracy. Just before he was hanged in Charleston, South Carolina, he said: “What I did was to keep me from perishing. I was forced to go a-pirating to live.” In 1991, the government of Somalia – in the Horn of Africa – collapsed. Its nine million people have been teetering on starvation ever since – and many of the ugliest forces in the Western world have seen this as a great opportunity to steal the country’s food supply and dump our nuclear waste in their seas.

Yes: nuclear waste. As soon as the government was gone, mysterious European ships started appearing off the coast of Somalia, dumping vast barrels into the ocean. The coastal population began to sicken. At first they suffered strange rashes, nausea and malformed babies. Then, after the 2005 tsunami, hundreds of the dumped and leaking barrels washed up on shore. People began to suffer from radiation sickness, and more than 300 died. Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, the UN envoy to Somalia, tells me: “Somebody is dumping nuclear material here. There is also lead, and heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury – you name it.” Much of it can be traced back to European hospitals and factories, who seem to be passing it on to the Italian mafia to “dispose” of cheaply. When I asked Ould-Abdallah what European governments were doing about it, he said with a sigh: “Nothing. There has been no clean-up, no compensation, and no prevention.”

At the same time, other European ships have been looting Somalia’s seas of their greatest resource: seafood. We have destroyed our own fish-stocks by over-exploitation – and now we have moved on to theirs. More than $300m worth of tuna, shrimp, lobster and other sea-life is being stolen every year by vast trawlers illegally sailing into Somalia’s unprotected seas. The local fishermen have suddenly lost their livelihoods, and they are starving. Mohammed Hussein, a fisherman in the town of Marka 100km south of Mogadishu, told Reuters: “If nothing is done, there soon won’t be much fish left in our coastal waters.”

This is the context in which the men we are calling “pirates” have emerged. Everyone agrees they were ordinary Somalian fishermen who at first took speedboats to try to dissuade the dumpers and trawlers, or at least wage a ‘tax’ on them. They call themselves the Volunteer Coastguard of Somalia – and it’s not hard to see why. In a surreal telephone interview, one of the pirate leaders, Sugule Ali, said their motive was “to stop illegal fishing and dumping in our waters… We don’t consider ourselves sea bandits. We consider sea bandits [to be] those who illegally fish and dump in our seas and dump waste in our seas and carry weapons in our seas.” William Scott would understand those words.

No, this doesn’t make hostage-taking justifiable, and yes, some are clearly just gangsters – especially those who have held up World Food Programme supplies. But the “pirates” have the overwhelming support of the local population for a reason. The independent Somalian news-site WardherNews conducted the best research we have into what ordinary Somalis are thinking – and it found 70 percent “strongly supported the piracy as a form of national defence of the country’s territorial waters.” During the revolutionary war in America, George Washington and America’s founding fathers paid pirates to protect America’s territorial waters, because they had no navy or coastguard of their own. Most Americans supported them. Is this so different?

Did we expect starving Somalians to stand passively on their beaches, paddling in our nuclear waste, and watch us snatch their fish to eat in restaurants in London and Paris and Rome? We didn’t act on those crimes – but when some of the fishermen responded by disrupting the transit-corridor for 20 percent of the world’s oil supply, we begin to shriek about “evil.” If we really want to deal with piracy, we need to stop its root cause – our crimes – before we send in the gun-boats to root out Somalia’s criminals.

The story of the 2009 war on piracy was best summarised by another pirate, who lived and died in the fourth century BC. He was captured and brought to Alexander the Great, who demanded to know “what he meant by keeping possession of the sea.” The pirate smiled, and responded: “What you mean by seizing the whole earth; but because I do it with a petty ship, I am called a robber, while you, who do it with a great fleet, are called emperor.” Once again, our great imperial fleets sail in today – but who is the robber?

POSTSCRIPT: Some commenters seem bemused by the fact that both toxic dumping and the theft of fish are happening in the same place – wouldn’t this make the fish contaminated? In fact, Somalia’s coastline is vast, stretching to 3300km. Imagine how easy it would be – without any coastguard or army – to steal fish from Florida and dump nuclear waste on California, and you get the idea. These events are happening in different places – but with the same horrible effect: death for the locals, and stirred-up piracy. There’s no contradiction.

Johann Hari is a writer for the Independent newspaper


                   CULTURAL FESTIVAL: APRIL 17, 2009


             PRESS RELEASE


The Glendon Africa Network presents its first ‘annual conference and cultural festival- 2009’ titled: “the development of technology and Science in Africa: a way to harness domestic and global economy in the 21 century”. This conference will offer participants opportunity to learn more about African culture, economic development and empowerment achieved through scientific and other academic achievement. Glendon Africa Network, formed in the year 2007, is an academic organization for all ethnic groups. It believes that knowledge is power, and aspires to educate the students and share knowledge with the faculties at Glendon about the continent Africa and its place in international society. It is the brainchild of Mr. Stephen Abara and other founding members: Marfo Bonsu, Nana Yaw Afriyie, Sinatou Bello, Noela Kitoto, Housseinatou Boiro, Baudride Mbaya and Adelton lopes who decided to find ways to enhance the multicultural interactions of students at Glendon College. It provides students of African descent and Glendon students with a more understanding of African lifestyle and identity. The club aims to foster knowledge about Africa through culturally appropriate arts, workshops, international conferences, leadership development, and sponsorship of disadvantaged African children.


The 2009 conference will provide Glendon students and faculty a unique social and educational opportunity to explore Africa’s identity and relevant issues. The speakers and the academia that will be present in the conference represent a broad background of experience in various fields. GAN wishes to highlight the importance of collective organization to bring about long term academic goals and development in Africa


The cultural activities during this conference period will focus on performance and visual arts to covey our message of peace, unity and African vibrancy. We will enlist the skills of artists, poets, drum groups, recognized cultural speakers who represent the dynamic history and positive development of the African people. 


Conference inaugural speech will be given by the principle of Glendon, Prof. Kenneth McRoberts. The event is co-sponsored by Harriet Tubman centre –Keele, and Human rights department. 


GAN Membership has remained dedicated to the success of the club.  We encourage new membership yearly. The event begins at 12pm and ends at 5pm.


Location: Glendon College, café, York University, Canada.


Stephen Abara

President, Glendon Africa Network

Tel: 647-285-0278


Web: http //





                                                 COMMUNIQUÉ DE PRESSE


Le Réseau Africain Glendon vous présente sa première conférence annuelle sous forme d’un festival culturel intitulé : « le développement de la technologie et de la Science en Afrique ».


Nous essayerons d’analyser et si possible apporter les solutions aux causes qui empêchent  la montée économique Africaine au niveau mondiale et domestique au 21er siècle”.


Cette conférence offrira également l’opportunité aux participants d’apprendre d’avantage sur la culture africaine.


Le Réseau Africain Glendon formé en 2007 par l’initiative de monsieur Stephen Abara étudiant aux relations internationales à Glendon, est une organisation qui accepte des membres venant de tous les groupes ethniques selon les normes des associations du collège Glendon.


Le but principal de cette association est de pourvoir enseigner et d’apporter des écclaircissements aux étudiants du collège Glendon concernant le continent Africain et son importance dans la communauté internationale.


Ormis les activités culturel et de sensibilisation, le club souhaiterait également  sponsoriser les enfants défavorisés en africain.


La conférence du 17 avril 2009 donnerait  une opportunité aux étudiants de Glendon ainsi qu’a nos invités de parler de long et en large de l’Afrique.


GAN veut accentuer l’importance d’organisation collective pour provoquer les résultats positifs à long terme pour le développement de l’Afrique.


Les activités culturelles pendant cette période de conférence se concentreront sur la performance et les arts visuels pour accompagner notre message de paix, d’unité et de vitalité africaine.


Le discours d’inauguration de la conférence sera donné par le principe de Glendon, Prof. Kenneth McRoberts.


Cet événement est sponsorisé par le centre  Harriet Tubman-Keele et le département de Droits de l’homme.


La conférence aura lieu à la caféteria du collège Glendon de 12pm à 5pm.



Stephen Abara

Le président, Glendon le Réseau d’Afrique

Tél : 647-285-0278

E-mail :

Web: http //

Travel Guyana The Beautiful Land of  Many Waters:


Guyana is and Indeginous word meaning -land of many waters. Guyana, located in the northeast of South America. It is also one of only 4 non Spanish-speaking countries in South America. Because of immigration they are approximately 740,000 people living in the country. The make up is Amerindians (5.3 %). Blacks (30.5 %). East Indians (51.4 %). Chinese (0.2 %). White (2.1 %). and Mixed (10 %). Columbus sited Guyana in 1498 But the dutch were the 1st Europeans to settle in Guyana  around -1616.



The economy of British Guyana was completely dominated by sugarcane production until the 1880s, when falling cane sugar prices stimulated a greater shift toward rice farming, mining and forestry. However, sugarcane remained a significant part of the economy (sugar would account for nearly 50% of exports in 1959). Under the Dutch, settlement and economic activity was concentrated around sugar plantations lying inland from the coast. Under the British, cane planting expanded to richer coastal lands, with greater coastline protection. Until the of slavery in the British Empire in 1834, sugar planters relied very heavily on slave labour to produce


Guyana is one of the poorest countries in the world today-however it still one of the most beautiful places in the world.





















My name is Courtney Duncan I am of Guyanese heritage-they are many things to see i Guyana-exotic birds, wild animals hundreds of waterfalls, carnivals-big snakes-danger excitemnet-Guyana as the 3rd largest wildlife conservation in the world-number one is Africa-Guyana the beautiful the birth place of my parents



Courtney duncan     


Many young people today do not realize that a great part of the activities in their social life could be defined as sexual harassment. The faculty staff at the various campuses across Canada indirectly protect the male harasser by not making a connection between certain forms of harassment, rape and sexual assault. The purpose of this paper is to explore why various forms of sexual misconduct have become so widespread or prevalent. The factors that contribute to sexual harassment on campus are our aggressive culture, the inexperience of  first year students and the power of the instructor along with the actions of the women remaining silent to avoid the negative attention of being being singled out. These are also the main reasons that sexual harassment goes undetected within our campus community.    

   This essay will also consist of a questionnaire whose findings will be compared to the findings of the government survey. The findings of our survey will determine whether ethinicity and a woman’s economical situation play a factor in the increase incidents of sexual misconduct towards various groups of women within our community. The conclusion will be based on our research: for example should the blame be placed on our judicial system, our culture or the faculty staff at the various universities? Also do we have adequate solutions to this ever growing problem of sexual harassment on the campuses of our various universities and colleges?    

   Sexual harassment is a relatively new term and concept under law; however it is not a new issue on our campuses. According to Sandler and Shoop (1998), it remained a hidden issue in part because there was no name for the behavior until the early 1970s when a few women at Cornell University came up with the term “sexual harassment”. These women had to struggle to find a term to describe their experience because the continual sexual advances had caused depression and insecurity in their social life outside of the workplace and educational enviroment. (p. 4). Most women who have experienced it have trouble understanding sexual harassment. For example many women sense that compliments such as the professor telling her with increasing frequency that “she was the prettiest student that he ever taught.” On occasions the oral choice of words was changed to “the sexiest student we ever had”. Moroever, an instructor asking a student whether he or she had a  “boyfriend”, or an invitation to dinner, “so we can get to know each other”. These are all forms of sexual harassment that women find hard to distinguish or unconfortable to discuss. This is true because our society indirectly implies that sexual harassment may not necessarily be a crime and a woman’s assailant is always a stranger. The subtle comments of an instructor in a classroom or the touching by an acquaintance in a classroom-the casual stroke of someone thighs or hands may seem innocent to some potential female victim. Too many men and women think of sexual harassment as only anal, oral or vaginal penetration. According to stats Canada (2008), four out of five female undergraduates surveyed at Canadian universities said they had been the victim of some sort of violence in a dating relationship. The form of violence either took on sexual assault, physical abuse, verbal abuse and unwelcome remarks, patting, pinching, touching or finally rape.


   The survey produced for this essay was based on the reports of female student and working members of the faculty.  However, the results were similar-eighty five percent of the women answered yes to strange males giving them unwanted hugs or may have touched them on the leg or stroked their hair. From this finding we must make aware to all students what patterns and behaviors constitute sexual deviance.


   The questionnaire distributed at York University revealed similar numbers to the graph above,  produced by statistics Canada. The questionnaire is made up of 20 questions. The most intriguing question is stated as follows, “Has anyone tried to rub up with you at a dance”? A modest 75 per cent stated that at the various dances, young men whom they did not know-did-try and dance dirty and intimate with them. For this question, fifty five percent of the young women indicate in their answer that this form of harassment was more prominent during the Frosh week social activities organized by the student associations. At these parties, the University forbids alcohol consumption.  Despite this ban, some off-campus activities typically involve the consumption of alcohol and drugs and listening to various forms of music. As the day turns to night intimate couplings with experienced university students and freshman females is eminent.  

    Another social gathering at York is the Thursday night pub night. At this pub it is common to see young women dressed very provocatively.  At the various social dances it is the young man who usually makes the first move. He will slide up behind her grinding his crotch into her behind. If she is not willing she will just move away.  Although this action could be classified as sexual harassment or interference-this behavior is rarely reported. Bohner & Parrot(1993). Many people, including those who have experienced it, have trouble identifying sexual assault. (Pg.18)

    The York University questionnaire that was distributed to 300 female students indicate that one-quarter of all college girls will be raped or be the targets of attempted rape by the end of their college years. The assailants of these women are not perverted old men lurking in dark alleys they are the student athlete or regular guy sitting next to them in class or at the library. Statistic Canada survey state that 60% of the victims know their assailants.


 When a woman knows the man who sexually assaults her it is less likely that it will be recognized as a crime by the woman.  When a male student compliments a young woman’s body or grinds up with her at a dance without her consent-this is wrong. In today’s society this form of harassment is being ignored by both the male and female genders. Our culture has deemed this natural for a young man to try and take a woman sexually as opposed to getting to know someone with a meaningful conversation. Many women consider themselves more marketable or attractive if they are looked at as a sexual object.

    We are living in an age where teen pregnancy is the norm. The sexual freedom of the nineteen sixties was based on women making their own choices and becoming more independent. Sexual freedom in today’s society depicts young women as eager college sluts. The young people of today believe that practicing safe sex means you are healthy person. Moreover, a young lady who is not sexually active, is sometimes looked at as prudish and unattarctive. Therefore the compromise of sex for a relationship is the option for young women on campuses.

    Young people are also taught that keeping our sex partners to a mere two or three per year follows the best advice that modern psychology can offer. They are enjoying their sexual freedom, experimenting, discovering themselves. The author (Crittende 2006) states that “sexually active teenage girls were more than three times as likely to be depressed, and nearly three times as likely to have had a suicide attempt, than girls who were not sexually active.” (pg 17) This depression is a result of our neo Canadian culture-a culture that tells teenaged girls the best sex is safe sex. The idea of suicide is conceivable because many of these young women have now realized that they have given away something precious because of a night of drunkenness. Young women who encounter this problem feel intimidated, fearful, dirty and worthless. A woman in this state of mind will find it hard to conceive the criminal elements of sexual harassment.

     First year university students will be seventeen and eighteen years old. This group is at the bottom of the social scale because they cannot legally drink. They are in a position to interact with students that will be 3 to 15 years older than them. The older experienced male is at an advantage because he equates sex as lustful meaningless pleasure whereas the female gives herself for companionship. As a result of struggle of the sexes she may find it difficult to talk about one night stands with either her parents or the various departments of the faculty.  

 (Wilson 1997) This writer believes that less deadly, perhaps, but still very serious is the tendency of institutions to confuse/conflate acts of sexual discrimination with harassment. She further argues that women are losing these…struggles for justice. Ed. Note…full text of Ms. Wilson’s message can be found on the message log for January 1997. These struggles for justice are lost within our curriculum because the university realizes the danger in placing harassment within the context of a criminal offence such as rape. The only intention of a university such as “York” is to maintain the good name of the institute. The various universities across Canada will profit more by proving they have established a safe environment for our young women to study.

     The fears of sexual harassment and rape were originally from the rising numbers in the United States. According to a National Institute of Justice report from December 2005, on a campus of 10,000 students, as many as 350 women may be victims of sexual assault each year. More than 80% of these women were under the age twenty.  According to Currie and MacLean 2007 “they believe that 20-25% of women in campuses across Canada have experienced some form of abuse in a dating situation”. The abuse is anything from sexual assault to rape. Most researchers acknowledge the embarrassment of the institute in dealing with rape. If the various institute across Canada then decide to raise awareness to sexual harassment and the various forms of harassment, our numbers would rate in compare to those of the United States.     stat_02_03_2

    Sexual harassment is also about power and less to do with sex than is generally understood.  According to (Sandler & Shoop 1997) sexual harassment occurs in the context of a power imbalance where one person has the power to intimidate. (pg7). A prime example of this scenario is the professor or instructor who invites the student to his office for a chat and closes the door. The harassment between instructor and student can be even more restrained than that. It could be an instructor complimenting a student about her hair, eyes or certain clothing. The harassment can lead to malicious gossip where students believe the pretty girl with the nice body who always seems to get good grades is sleeping with the professor. This assumption, made on mere speculation, as become a natural part of our culture.

   The York University survey that was recorded for this research paper indicates that 50% of female students believed that although this behavior is wrong the instructor has done nothing wrong unless he as physically touched the student or asked for sex. Moreover, they indicated that society would be more upset at same sex relationships and interracial love. They believe that a professor sleeping with his female student would be far less destructive than a same sex relationship or interracial relationship. What is the outcome of a relationship between the instructor and female student?  More often this relationship is a one-night stand, hot young sex or a romantic affair (which might end with bad feelings between the couple). The exact numbers for York University are unknown but in one university study, 26 percent of male faculty members reported they had had sexual encounters or sexual relationships with women students (Fitzgerald, Weitzman 1988). These women in return choose not to seek any help because they feel that they would be much to blame. Sexual harassment of students by adults is less common than harassment among students (AAUW, 2001) but is extremely serious, involving a gross abuse of power and trust. Occasionally, students sexually harass adults (AAUW), often targeting support staff members-such as teacher assistant, cafeteria workers, and janitors-who are perceived as less powerful. In all cases, school leaders must ensure that staff members and students understand appropriate boundaries, what their rights are, and that violations will be dealt with immediately and seriously.perptovic05

    A growing area of concern for educators and the people of our community is the diverse ethnic cultures within our university community.  York University is home to men and women of every ethno-cultural, religious and sexual background.  Because of this diversity we as a school could have higher incidents of sexual stereotyping. According to Shoop & Edwards (1994), ‘there are four preconditions that enhance the presence of stereotyping. These categories are rarity, priming, environment structure and ambience of the environment.’ (pg49). Being the only female in the class would be a good definition of rarity. To continue priming is a class or area on campus where you may see nude pictures, an area known for sexual slurs or even nude posing in the arts. Areas considered prime locations at York University are the athletic center, the first and second floor of the library and the various bars. What then will happen is that many people who converge to this area then become more aggressive and abusive towards women.

    If the faculty tends to ignore sexual harassment then the students will act by their views or actions thus forming a preconditioned law.  And finally stereotyping is the university’s promotion of women as sex objects. A prime example of this form of stereotyping was when a female law student filed charges against the faculty. It seemed that some male students had choreographed a play describing her as a slut who gives “head” to her professor for good grades. Nothing is being done because the actions of one potential assailant could destroy the integrity of the university. Moreover, female students still attend university at a greater number than male students. If figures show that we have a problem with crimes of harassment, abuse and assault, the university will mostly likely lose a large amount of money in the long term because female students will start to choose safer and more integrated programs. 

   According to Paludi (1996), ‘it is considered “bad” design if the people of color are not compared to white participants. The same demand is not required in studies with white samples. Thus, the experience of the white sample is considered the norm. (pg49) The same theory is used in analyzing our hypothesis. The case study was based on the answers of 20 white females, 20 black female, 20 East Indians, 20 East Africans, 20 Asian women, 20 women of Latin descent and 20 women of Middle-Eastern heritage. What is interesting about the questionnaire is that all the women believed that men harass, sexual abuse and assault women equally on campus. However, seventy five per cent of the white females believed that the Jewish males are the major assailant because they use economic position and subtle manipulative methods to abuse. More than 70 per cent of the women stated that race does play a role in the men they date.  Many of these women preferred to date white men and they also indicated that they would date any man if he had a lot of money.  The ladies also indicated that a woman’s economical situation and religious denomination was a strong factor in abuse. According to our questionnaire 60 percent believed that a woman who economically had less money than her partner stood a greater chance for abuse in a relationship or subtle forms of harassment. stat_02_03_1

   The answer to this question could be the female is more docile because women in general are taught to follow a man. Moreover, what is commonly understood is the male aggressor who is economical, sufficient, will seek out women he believes are inferior to him because of their economical status. This person may only be with this woman for her sexual practices and submissiveness. Her economic situation is one way of satisfying his power for control of another person. In the seventies when women started writing books on equality it was always the rich woman who captured the attention of the media. This early movement dealt with the dilemma of the rich educated white woman and her effortsts to be accepted within the corporate world. This movement did not focus on the physical and sexual abuse faced by lower and middle class women. In Canada women living in aboriginal communities and Muslim women still faces the horrors of violence and various forms of sexual abuse-these women have no support groups. Therefore, money certain ethnicity is an important factor in studying how young men and women communicate as equals.

    Our misconception may hold some truth in determining social factors to sexual misconducts such as rape and assault. About 60 per cent of the female population indicated that they would fear a black man late at night over any other male. Moreover, metropolitan police state that black people commit more crimes against other males. The black man was charged with assault with a weapon or robbery 71 per cent of the times. At the York university campus less than 5% of the sexual harassment, assault and rape cases were black. The top four offenders are Caucasian, Pakistani, Arabic and Asian. This is a society where sex is on display. The pornographic industry is a billion dollar industry. Furthermore, prostitution has been legalized in many gaming and casino areas in America. In today’s society we have male and female strip bars. Many occasions young women go to strip bars with men. Up until the early seventies a young woman would never enter a bar after 5 o’clock without a male chaperone. Our society is mired in the politics of sex. We have nude beaches, porn theatre and many of the adolescent and children’s television show are geared towards gender bias. Our children indirectly learn from what they view on televison and the internet. The entertainment industry is based on overt sexuality, violence and at times degradation of the female gender.      

    No one group is at fault for sexual harassment. However, the government does need to push for the educators to provide brochures and later on a half credit on sexual harassment and its criminal elements. This credit could be taken in a student final year of high school. It will then provide young women and men with a clearer understanding of what is wrong and right.  Furthermore, security should be hired on campus and they should be properly trained. According to metropolitan police, inexperienced security have often destroyed a crime scene or taken too long in calling the police. Most campus security has done the investigation by themselves and on occasion they have pressured the victim to drop the charges. The university owes it to all levels of our female faculty to put together a clearer meaning of sexual harassment.  So many people, myself included, taught that sexual harassment was rape or sexual assault. What I have learned is that this form of harassment is deeper than gender discrimination. Somehow we must make everyone aware of the consequences of harassment. More important all students should be ware that harassment is prominent in the transgender, gay, lesbian, male and female straight community.    sexual-harassment-statistic





Breakdown of cases according to the gender of the persons subjected to the harassment and the persons accused of harassment.


    In conclusion this project has made me become more aware of my personal actions. Upon completing this assignment I realize that there is little effort by the Canadian government to control this problem. However, the Ontario government recognizes the first week of June as Sexual Harassment Awareness Week to increase awareness of sexual harassment, how to prevent it and to honour the memories of all women who have been victimized. Sexual harassment in workplaces and other settings is a serious form of violence against women in Ontario, and crosses every social boundary. I can only compare the spread of  harassment like the common cold because we have no cure but more important no deaths. Sexual harassment is a major problem at York University and the various campuses across Canada. This research as proven that sexual harassment should be defined as a serious offence-an-offence punishable by dismissal to the offender if proven guilty.        


 Courtney Duncan


“The sun never sets on the British empire”[1] was a phrase that meant that the British Empire was so extensive that, at any one time, at least part of its territory was in daylight. Guyana was a part of the British Empire. All Guyanese students are familiar with the rise of the British Empire in the eighteenth century. The term long eighteenth century is most commonly used by Guyanese scholars to assess the achievements of Great Britain. The Long eighteenth century was a period from 1688 to 1832. This period is generally depicted as Britain’s greatest triumph.

    In the centuries before the period of the long eighteenth century England, France and Spain generally fought between themselves for supremacy. For example the sixteenth century marked the time of Spanish dominance in Europe and the America’s. In the seventeenth century Britain witnessed the rise of Bourbon France and the eighteenth century was a century that welcomed colonial world power conflicts between old powers, as France, Spain, and England. Moreover, the time period of the eighteenth century fathered the first feelings of nationalism as these old regimes tried to balance each other’s power so that none would get to have an advantage.

    By the mid eighteenth century it was clear that the winner of this struggle would be the kingdom of Great Britain. What is remarkable to many scholars including myself is that this small island had survived the “bubonic” plague, the great fire of London in 1666, heavy taxes, and civil war. However, in less than seventy years Great Britain had put itself in position to rule the world. Many factors contributed to Great Britain rising to prominence. The true historian will base their arguments on Great Britain putting together a highly professional bureaucracy that believed in a sophisticated land and naval force that was later employed to protect the colonist. It was more than politics and military genius that forced Great Britain to the forefront. The common Englishman would point to the geographical location of Great Britain playing a role in its rise to prominence along with the decline of The Ottoman Empire.  Finally, the most important factor that contributed to this nation’s rise to prominence is the Industrial Revolution and the British government’s quiet involvement in the slave trade. This essay is written to identify the factors that transformed Britain from a second-rate to a first rate world power in the eighteenth century. The question is whether Britain’s political policy for success was also a cause of their decline. 

    “Eighteenth-century Europe can be described as states dancing together in temporary partnership until the music changed and old partners were deserted and new embraced. The eighteenth-century system was based on rivalry and alliances.”[2] Rulers sought to expand their power and territory through marriages. In Great Britain dynastic marriages were important but the main advantage the British had over the other European powers was the power of parliamentary government. “The origins of Parliament go back to the 13th century when the nobles would summon a parliament to discuss matters of disquiet to the barons and other prominent men of the realm.”[3] By 1649 parliament and Oliver Cromwell were powerful enough to behead Charles 1 for treason. For the next eleven years Britain was governed by Oliver Cromwell and his incompetent son Richard Cromwell. It was also parliament who had decided to recall the Stuart lineage. By 1679 an exclusion bill to exclude James II was introduced. This parliament was called the First Exclusion Parliament.

   The evolution of the common man in politics is a significant factor to the cohesion or stability of the British parliament in the eighteenth century. By the eighteenth century Great Britain’s peasant society and working class had achieved far greater privileges than their counter-part on the continent. Further evidence of this statement would be the Peasant Revolt of 1381. On the contrary the middle and lower classes of France only gained their independence in 1789. By the early seventeen hundreds, Britain had established sophisticated political factions who served the nobility and the common people. In this new kingdom men could rise from nothing to become exceptionally rich and powerful. The poor and middle class man could speak his mind on religion, and politics without any fear of being imprisoned or hanged by their respective institutions. This cannot be said of the great kingdoms of Spain and France.

    Political parties in power such as the Whigs and Tories functioned by checking the power of the monarchy. This gave the ruling government an opportunity to create wealth for the nation and government. On the contrary countries such as Spain had to deal with the Inquisition and divine rule of the monarchy. Furthermore, the opposition to the British political system in Europe was feudal in their political thoughts. In Spain Inquisition dominance stifled the social and political growth of that country. In contrast parliamentary rule enabled Britain to manage its resources and balance the national debt. This ingenuity encouraged migration of rich merchants from other parts of Europe to invest in the economy of Great Britain and the development of London as the business capital of the known world as it was in the eighteenth century. These expansions were instrumental in moving the World Bank from Amsterdam to London in the eighteenth century.    

     The Whig party is recognized in establishing the kingdom of Great Britain. “The Whigs were instrumental in pushing a bill which would exclude all catholic sovereigns from taking the throne of England after the death of James the 2nd. This act is known as the Act of Settlement 1701. Furthermore, the Whig party along with Tory engineered the Act of Settlement act of Union in 1707.”[4] The Act of Union incorporated Scotland into a union with Britain and it further nullified the freedom of monarchs to rule without a government. The power gained by the Whigs and Tories quickly established liberty within the new Kingdom.

   In Great Britain a monarch had to call parliament to gain support for certain endeavors. Moreover, local governments ruled without much control from central governments. “The powers exercised by the two governments made it less time consuming to pass certain laws and to raise taxes. The people only had contact with government on local levels unless they were taken into the armed services.”[5] This meant that the taxes collected were controlled and they were rarely used to fill the treasury of the monarch. 

   Taxes were important because they supported the army, the poor and they were used to ‘build bridges and fix roads. The population in Great Britain was helped because of poor relief. The poor relief was tax money the government collected that was eventually used to feed the homeless and the poor. Furthermore, this made Great Britain a much more unified and grounded nation than the rest of Europe.

   Sir Robert Walpole is Great Britain’s first prime minister and greatest political leader. “Walpole rose to power as a Whig M.P. from 1700 to 1721”[6]  Sir Robert Walpole is famous for handling the stock market crash of 1720. This crisis is known as the South Sea “bubble.” Walpole limited political damage by honoring the debt.  The country of France had a similar crisis however it was much more damaging to their market.  Walpole never favored war and the British people were constantly at war during the period of the eighteenth century. The monarch usually influenced parliament; however the final decision for war was a vote. “In 1701 the war of the “Spanish Succession” began.  “When Charles 2nd died in 1700, he left a will expressing his desire that his diminished empire “remain” intact and that Louis 14th grandson, Philip of Anjou, succeed him.”[7]  This was an easy decision for British parliament who along with Queen Anne feared the consolidation of Bourbon France with Hapsburg Spain. This war involved all the great states of Europe. It was the first known world war because the battle was fought in Europe, Africa, India and the Americas. By the signing of the treaty of Utrecht (1713) it appeared that France and Philip had done better on the bargaining table. This treaty laid the foundations for Great Britain taking full possession of New France by 1763. 

     In 1746 Britain fought their last war on their own natural soil.  At the battle of “Culloden” Charles Stuart was crushed and sent packing to France. The battle of Culloden was the Stuart line’s last claim to the throne of Great Britain. This is instrumental because for centuries countries such as Spain and France would always support independent states like Scotland and lesser extent Ireland to rise up against England. They were many other battles lost and won by Great Britain in the period of the eighteenth century. War was heavily financed from the taxes of the colonies taken by Great Britain. This added revenue contributed to the building of more and better naval vessels for exploration, war and defense. War was costly. However, war laid the foundations for the Anglo-Saxon empire and domination of the world. CANADA/

     Britain was an Anglo-Saxon empire forged with the blood of the landed gentry, common people and the nobility. This rise to prominence was further achieved by nature and the decline of old religious enemies such as the Ottoman Empire. “The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople after a lengthy siege in 1453, and by 1481, the Ottoman Turkish Empire extended to the Danube River in Central Europe.”[8]  Islam would continue to be a threat to Christianity. “The Ottoman Turks commanded the Black Sea and the northern Aegean and many prime trade routes had been closed to European shipping.”[9] The Islamic threat loomed even larger with incorporation of the janissary soldiers. These soldiers were influential in winning great wars for the Sultans. However, by the eighteenth century the janissaries began to raise political war against the Sultans. By the mid eighteenth century they had risen to an astronomical number of 130,000. They were eventually killed by the Sultan. It was soon after the massacre of this secretive warrior sect that the Ottoman Empire declined. With the fall of the Ottoman Empire the trade route to the east was now controlled by England.  Further evidence of the decline of Ottoman rule playing a factor in European and Great Britain expansion east is the attempt of Britain to align Egypt with India. These were all territories within Ottoman sea ports. The Ottoman decline opened the door for Hapsburg Austria to control the Balkans. This is an important statement because the powerful Austrian Hapsburg had joined in union with Great Britain to disband the Spanish Hapsburg succession.   

      Political alliances were not the only reason for Great Britain’s success in the eighteenth century. Not since the year 1066 had an army successfully landed on British soil. In 1688 William 1st successfully landed an army in London. He won the day without a shot being fired. Over the centuries Great Britain’s waterways have proven too tricky to conquer. Invading armies have had to maneuver the rough Irish Sea, Atlantic Ocean and narrow river Thames. The leading European powers on the continent did not have the luxury of being an island. They had to spend a large sum in the upkeep of forts and troops to defend their borders.

    It was not only the huge sums of money spent by rival European powers in protecting their homeland that gave Britain an advantage for economic dominance. By the eighteenth century the trading route soon switched to the Atlantic.  In early colonial settlement, goods came from two main sources:  England and Africa. “A typical system of goods would consist of cloth, rum or weapons. These goods would be traded for black people. Many of the slaves died during transportation to the colonies-they were, tightly packed in disease invested compartments. Many died of malaria, or scurvy.”[10]  Once in the colony, the ship would unload the slaves and take on any or all of molasses, sugar or tobacco and then head to Great Britain, completing the triangular trade.      british-empire-333

   “Slave ships brought the occasional slave back to England and advertisement offering slaves for sale were seen in Liverpool and Bristol newspapers.”[11]  “In the eighteenth century sugar was Britain’s largest import by value and per capita consumption of sugar reached a level of between 16 and 24 pounds per annum during the eighteenth century.”[12]  West Indian sugar made huge profits for the British all around the world. Slavery in the colonies grew in numbers. “Many British people would borrow money to start small and large plantations. In 1671-1775 a total of one 1.75 million slaves were transported to the British colonies.”[13] The selling of slaves to the colonist and exchange of natural goods, proved lucrative for the British government. Although slavery was ruled illegal on English soil in the late seventeen hundreds the law was not passed in the colony until the late 1830s. Slavery generated much needed money to reduce the national debt in Great Britain. It was a win situation for many of the parliamentary members many of whom had invested large sums of money in building plantation businesses in the colonies. Great Britain reduced the national debt by taxing the colonies and ignoring the atrocities of slavery.

   With the coming of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century Great Britain realized the value in new inventions-these innovations were used to cultivate more crops. The industrial revolution of the 18th century dramatically changed the function of industry. These new innovations were machines, fresh sources of power and energy, and the construction of assembly style lines. Industrialism improved the quality of the goods and it increased production of finished goods to be sold in the various markets. Many people speculate why industrialism occurred first in Great Britain.

    The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because people had more freedom to explore and expand on ideas. It was the Whig Oligarchy of the early 1700s that established a new law on patents for inventions. Moreover, monarchs could not control or seize earnings or impose taxes. This freedom enabled Britain to become masters of the world. The freedom achieved in this period more than anything gave the people of Great Britain an identity. The Industrial Revolution changed the world for good. Great Britain’s factories on the outskirts of its cities, the tall chimneys smoking by day and glowing by night, the incessant hum of machinery, the bustle of crowds of workmen, all these were familiar to eighteenth century Britons.[14] Just a few short years before the Industrial Revolution, the population changed greatly in Great Britain. People began to migrate from the rural and far country side in search of jobs in the bigger industrialized British cities. This revolution created and eliminated competition between old rivalries such as Holland.


    Earlier in this journal we spoke of Britain’s triumph across the seas. By the eighteenth century Great Britain had the ability to obtain an abundance of natural resources and minerals from the territories they won in conquest. These commodities were then brought back to Britain where they were mass produced in factories across the island. The increased production usually meant availability for the British colonists and the rest of the world. It also destroyed the competition because the British market could sell products at a cheaper than normal price. The most important commodities of British export were wool, metal, porcelain potteries and refined sugar. “However, the factory system also improved on the silk industry, which was borrowed from Italy, and brought to a London suburb by French refugees, after the repeal of the Edict of Nantes.”[15] The preconditions for industrialization can be classified as economic, social, and cultural. As mentioned earlier British banks became the center for world economy. Furthermore, the industrial era created advances in steam power, iron metallurgy and mechanical devices for spinning and weaving. “Very few of the early inventors were scientists: James Hargreaves, who invented the spinning jenny, was a carpenter; Edmund Cartwright, who developed the power loom, was a preacher and many others, including Abraham Darby a businessman who learned by doing.”[16] This was the British way of doing things; a new freedom not seen in any other European country.

   Industrialism also changed the family structure in that women could now seek opportunities to work in the factories. This monumental change occurred with the improvement of the loom. Gone were the days of spinning at home. During the industrial period the wealth of the nation tripled and the British people earned the unheralded title of Empire maker. This domination was envisioned in every aspect of life. This was so because with the improvement of the loom-women moved from spinning at home to within factories. The improvements were to be found everywhere in the manufacturers’ world. Ethically or culturally the British could do no wrong. The accolade was owed to the brilliant men of this period who now made Britain the centre for education, technological advances, and new cultural world capital. The great philosophers of the period such as David Hume, Adam Smith and Thomas Paine; these men were born and bred in the spirit of the British Empire.

    Britain’s presence is felt in the eighteenth century. We understand that an empire can only be developed by individuals from all levels of society. In Great Britain the government created private companies to whom the government and monarch granted exclusive rights to trade in a particular part of the world. Examples of these companies are the Hudson Bay Company, East India Company and the Royal Africa Company. Many people were given opportunities to invest in these companies.


   When the population of Britain exploded many people migrated to The Americas and other regions to seek their fortune. By the second stage of the empire white citizens who were raised in these regions started to gain control of their administration. This is an important time period because these second class British citizens started to resent the system instituted by the Empire. Their major concern was taxes in the Americas, Caribbean and India. In the region of India the British achieved great wealth at the expense of the peasant farmers and middle class population. In Great Britain’s colonies the colonists were angry at a Britain they felt had forgotten the prime directive. This directive was a fair balance of taxes and freedom to grow. The British had forgotten where they had come from and Britons were now draining the blood of their own brothers and sisters. With the episode of the French revolution, America took notice and gained their independence in 1776 from Great Britain. The British rulers could not fathom future wealth and power within America. It would take another 300 years for the British Empire to finally subside in the 1970s.

 In summary Great Britain proved to be a better negotiator at the peace table than the other European powers. Britain would use these negotiation skills to divide the potential power of their foes. A prime example of this was how they blocked the Bourbon claim to unify Hapsburg Spain with France and their generous financial gifts to weaker Protestant states within the territory of Europe. This proved effective in neutralizing the powerful Absolute states of Europe.   

 This world has witnessed many great achievements and people have benefited or suffered from Imperial rule. The British can never give back the money or capital stolen by a system centuries ago. The black, red and yellow man can only be thankful that they have gained back their lands. However sad this story may be, many people are still proud to be part of the Commonwealth.

Courtney Duncan










[1] Simon Winchester, The Sun Never Sets: Travels to the Remaining Outposts of the British Empire (New York. N.Y): Prentice Hall Press, 1985), xvii



[2] John Merriman, A history Of Modern Europe: From The Renaissance To The Present (New York N.Y.): Library of Congress Catalog-in-Publication Data, 1996), p.444  

[3] Stanford E. Lehmberg and Samantha A. Meigs, From Prehistoric Times to 1688: The Peoples of the British Isles: A New History (Chicago, Illinois: Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data, 2001), p79

[4] Merriman, A History of Modern Europe, p446.

[5] Thomas W Heyck, The People of the British Isles A New History: From 1688 to 1870 (Chicago, Illinois): Lyceum Books Inc, 2002), p69

[6] Heyck, The People of the British Isles, p74.

[7] Merriman, A History OF Modern Europe, p320

[8] Merriman, A History of Modern Europe, p7

[9] “The End of Europe’s Middle Ages,” Ottoman Turk, (accessed February 2, 2009).

[10]  History of Britain II, the wars of the British,1603-1776. Volume 6, The wrong empire// written and presented by 
Schama, Simon: a BBC production in association with the History channel.

[11] David Eltis, The Rise of Slavery in the Americas (New York, NY): Cambridge University Press, 2000), p.1

[12] Ralph Davies, The Industrial Revolution and British Overseas Trade (Leicester, Leicester County): Leicester University Press, 1979) Table 27, p.45.

[13]( History of Britain II, the wars of the British,1603-1776. Volume 6, The wrong empire, 2002)

[14] T.S. Ashton & John Kenneth Galbraith, Paul Mantoux: The Industrial Revolution in The eighteenth century: An outline of the beginnings of the modern factory system in England. (Chicago, Illinois: The Chicago University Press, 1990), pg25

[15] Ashton & Galbraith, The Industrial Revolution, pg 104

[16] Heyck, the People of the British Isles, pg 188