Month: December 2008


BLACK MIGRATION TO NORTHERN TOWNS

Graffiti Roxbury Massachusetts
Graffiti Roxbury Massachusetts

The town of Roxbury is creating a character that is much different from the shamrocks, pubs and distinct Bostonian accent you hear all the time. Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston Massachusetts. It was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in sixteen thirty and became a city in eighteen forty- eight. The city of Roxbury became a suburb of Boston in eighteen sixty- eight. In the 19th Century the northern areas such as Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury and much of ‘the Back Bay-this area was, settled, by English, German and Irish people. In the early twentieth century, the town of Roxbury became the home to the Jewish community. The area known as Grove Hall, along Blue Hill Avenue came to be the center of Jewish habitat. The social, political and economical background of the district as always been crucial in the identity of the region been predominantly Protestant or Catholic. With the coming of the southern blacks during the post second war migrations. The region began the process of change that affects how we look at Roxbury and the other regions of South Boston. As a result, the report deals with the reasons the blacks migrated north to towns like Roxbury. Moreover, how the neighborhood ultimately affected by change became a site for racial unrest and hate. The influx of black people from the south of the United States to Roxbury Massachusetts occurred in the 1940s. They were attracted by lesser discrimination, beautiful homes and higher wages. Upon coming to the north the migrants encountered segregation, which was encouraged by the white people. Furthermore, the neighborhoods re-structuring soon generated an increased crime rate and turf warfare that was racially motivated. The property value soon depreciated with the coming of the black migrants to the town of Roxbury and other neighborhoods. Moreover, anything negative within the community, thus was the direct cause of the migrant moving to Roxbury. The racial tension reached monumental heights with the civil rights marches of the nineteen sixties and the forced busing of students, which led to violent out-breaks in all communities of Massachusetts. The Great Migration of black people from the south and into the northern cities were one of the most significant demographic events to occur in America. These men, women and children decided to move due to the cruel and inhumane treatment experienced in the south. Upon arriving in the northa migrant stated these words {I done come out of the land of Egypt with the good news …} This simile referred to the slave like conditions still existing in the south. In the nineteen hundreds, the southern state had passed laws enforcing racial segregation in public accommodations and public transportations. They had signs saying, no niggers allowed or white people only . The black migrant worker was inferior in every way to the southern whites. Southern law required the black people to ride on separate sections on trains or streetcars. The black people were inferior to the white people in the south. The black migrant worker from the south, for generations after slavery had faced conditions of seemingly perpetual dept, poverty and malnutrition. Racism was enshrined in the north and south but it seemed the racism in the north did not equate to lynching, burning of crosses or cheap labor.Many white business owners were indeed upset or jealous of the migration north. They feared the loss of the cheap labor that for generations had made agriculture in the south profitable would now ruin the economy. Moreover, they considered migration the epitome of insult to the social caste system of the south.The migrants consequently were coming for equal rights, personal dignity, and economic opportunity. They had hopes of achieving a bettor life for the children. The black migrant worker’s who decided to make Roxbury their home, had come from a wide variety of social backgrounds. Many had made their living as school teachers or skilled workers in the south. The companies in the east were willing to take them because they were skilled and they were willing to work longer hours at a cheaper rate. A new way of life was also well regarded by the black migrants from the south. Some of these people had never even been to school or traveled out of the state. The migration to Roxbury Massachusetts in the nineteen fifties not only created jobs and a safer environment for the children, italso placed poor black people into affordable homes. This was engineered by the city government of Boston, who was interested in monitoring the habitual movement of the southern black. This form of demographical monitoring and grouping by ethnicity was titled the Boston Urban Renewal Program. This system secretly established a boundary within the Jewish section as the only area where in which insured mortgages would be granted and only to blacks. This program caused a lot of controversy because it promoted blacks moving to Boston. To continue the house prices depreciated because nobody wanted to live in a community that would eventually foster a lot of today s crime and harbor a large black population.

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The affects of the black population coming to South Boston is very astounding. The first wave of migrants really immigrated to areas like Roxbury, Dorchester or Mattapan in the early 1900s. This group created a black on black form of racism that extended well into the nineteen sixties. The following story gives evidence to the previous statement. {Stephanie thought she had no right to her Irish heritage. As an adult, Stephanie has thought more about her Irish side and says that her daughter, Rachel, taught her to acknowledge her whiteness and her Irish heritage. Stephanie is a light skinned African American, as are many of her family members. She was listed as white on her birth certificate which she guesses was a mistake made by a nurse who saw her alone, not with other family members. Years earlier, Elijah and his family were listed as white on the 1920 census, perhaps because the census taker met Mary and assumed the other family members were white. Stephanie grew up in Roxbury, a predominantly black area of Boston, and later West Roxbury, an area that was predominantly white. She and her family left Roxbury during the 1960 s when blackness dominated the identity of African Americans. In the 1960 s, she was stoned and attacked in Roxbury when she walked through because other African Americans assumed she was white. In what Stephanie calls Old Boston, she says that most African Americans were light skinned. Many Old Boston African Americans were light skinned, and many were blue-eyed. Their color arranged from Stephanie nearly white to medium brown. When she was growing up, Roxbury was structured by color, profession and economics. The professional were very articulate and orderly. The professional group was the light- skinned people. The Darkest were the poorest who were the migratory blacks from the south. The Franklin Park area of Roxbury was where the light skinned lived and the economic path went down all the way to Dudley and Northampton Streets where the poorest, darkest lived. Then in the fifties and sixties and influx of migrants brought very dark skinned African Americans to Roxbury. The light skinned were no longer welcome. Stephanie thinks that it never occurred to newer black residents that people so light skinned were also black.} These light-skinned people were given the title of Black Brahmin -they were really the second settlers of Boston behind the Puritans-.the Black Brahmin may have been more disappointed in the migration of so many dark skinned people to the city. The Brahmin s did not really want toidentify with the with the migrants, because it only seemed that they represented oppression The Irish people eventually showed more hatred to the black migrants. In the early century the Irish people were still migrating to America and they were evidently upset with living so close to {niggers}. The city witnessed the segregation of neighborhoods and separate school systems. The Irish community may have been jealous because the migrant workers could purchase such old but beautiful property. These areas held the key to the city of Boston past and it seemed strange that black people whose grand parents may have been slaves, could actually, own such important property. When many Irish people found out about the deal, the Jewish people made the attacks increased and became more violent. This violence is summarized in the following paragraph from the novel, (The Death Of An American Jewish Community). During the nineteen forties and aswould be true throughout the nineteen fifties an aging Boston police officer could not ask for an easier beat than Boston s Jewish neighborhood. After twenty years on the job, no one was in the mood to match speed with juvenile delinquents or break up barroom brawls. In Jewish Roxbury, parents kept their kids in line and there was hardly a bar in sight. Potbellied cops angled for station nineteen, where, the saying went, a cop could always find a Jew in a synagogue The era before migration was much more peaceful. The migrant workers could have been the reason why the community failed. The government contributed to the demise of this neighborhood by implementing low mortgage rates, which on many of occasion homeowners had to forfeit,because the migrant did not make adequate funds. The community saw many people skip town or families moving out because they could not pay the rent. The neighborhoods of Roxbury, which were quite beautiful and vibrant soon became the homes of the most defeated Americans. The area was now home to some of the worst criminals in the state. The town of Roxbury also had major religious changes. The first known Christian faith to the community was the Protestants. The Irish brought a sense of the Roman Catholic appeal to the neighborhood beginning in thelatter part of the nineteenth century. To continue the Jewish people built synagogues, which gave the neighbor a Mediterranean flare. Furthermore, the black migrant s religion was Baptist. This was a very loud and country style worship, where the minister and congregation got deeply involved. The Baptist church music along with the blues music became instrumental to the city of Roxbury. As the ghetto grew and became more visible to whites, it did so mostly in terms of the problems and crime. On the FBI index in nineteen sixty black males reportedly represented five per cent of Boston population but twenty four per cent of people arrested for crimes. The white communities in the suburb realized a greater need to protect neighborhood. A prime example would be string of murders in the Boston suburbs. These murders were once thought to be the act of a citizen living somewhere in Roxbury or Dorchester. With the emergence of school desegregation movement in the early nineteen sixties resulted from the confluence of national events, improved economic conditions for native blacks and close to ten decades of fighting for bettor schools in the black community. The black people of Roxbury in addition, similar districts were finally satisfied. Here was positive change for their children. The area of Roxbury, which was predominantly black in the southern section, could now see a bettor education for their children. desegregation and multiculturalism was not fully excepted though by black and light skinned black groups as shown in the following anecdote statement. The black influx came just as native blacks enjoyed their most significant advance in economic mobility in at least a century. The more established middle-class black viewed with trepidation the most poor, rough edged newcomers . Rivalries and cultural differences existed among old natives, new southerners (called {homies} or migrant. The poor blacks from the south had caused the Brahmin blacks to lose social status, moreover plummeting the improved Brahmin black schools further down. The area of Roxbury slums and ghettos increased in size and social problems This neighborhood was now, not wanted by many upscale blacks in the community who were forced to stay because of racism. With the coming of desegregation within the school, system racism reached a record high in Boston. They were signs stating monkey go back home or nigger go home . In Roxbury a white student was stabbed which consequently caused out-rage in the Irish part of Roxbury. The black sections of Roxbury were more, influenced

roxbury1

by the demonstrations of New York City. The black people of South Boston were instrumentally less militant and aggressive than neighbors in other parts of the country. The assumed reason for this trait could be that blacks did not have the numbers in the civil department to exude change. The Irish clans were still dominant in the police force. The Italians were also very close knit and the Jewish community strived on business interests. The ethnic clans that once lived in Roxbury took pride in maintaining the neighborhood. The black migrants evidently had nothing and wereforced into this neighborhood to contain them like caged dogs. The Boston government preferred containment as opposed to having them move everywhere. This obvious neglect of an ethnic group by not contributing adequate funds into their neighborhoods for bettor schools or even reasonable wages, further plummeted the southern part of the town into destitute.

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Today Roxbury is home to other immigrants from places such as Vietnam, Mexico and the West Indies. The community has been refurnished or upgraded. The run down three level homes have been, refurbished for college students or yuppies that have discovered the neighborhood again. The community is now the home to college students, musicians and very liberal minded people. The community is doing much to put a polish into the once tarnished image. The influx of new migrants has created new scents and flavors within the neighborhood. To continue the political scene does not embody nationalism. The community is very much in doing so a dramatic turn around is evidenced. The Roxbury of old was James Curley, Jewish Bagels and Shamrocks. Today s Roxbury boast names such as Bobby Brown and foods like curried chicken and chicken fried rice. The music could be salsa, reggae or hard rock. The community is so colorful and vibrant you would not believe that it was once the cause of racial unrest..

Courtney Duncan


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ABELARD HELOISE ESSAY

Abelard and Heloise are one of the most researched couples of the medieval period. They were known for their romantic affair and the tragedy inflicted on them by churchmen, who adhere to the Benedictine Rule. By analyzing this rule and the story of Abelard and Heloise, we determine that the medieval period looked to the church for leadership. Furthermore, the focus of our paper is to give evidence of women being the subordinated character in the high middle ages.

Abelard & Heloise Medieval Tragic Lovers
Abelard & Heloise Medieval Tragic Lovers

During the middle ages, the church was a large part of everyday life. The church gave people spiritual guidance, and it served as their government along with the feudalism lords. The church had no position of leadership for women in this period. They were lesser subjects to the men who made every decision. The opening paragraph of the Historia Calamitatum, reveal medieval attitudes toward the woman as being subordinate or unimportant to rule.I n this, paragraph Abelard describes is early life as follows. “I was so carried away by the love of learning that I renounced the glory of a military life, made over my inheritance and rights of the eldest son to my brothers, and withdrew from the court of Mars in order to be educated in the lap of Minerva”. There is no mention of the sister getting any property. Moreover, in this period women were not considered property owners if they were male sons to will this land. A woman with land forfeited this property to her husband. The rule of Saint Benedictine is very much eminent in the Historia Calimatum in that Abelard wants to marry Heloise. He wants the marriage to be a secret so as not to damage a flourishing career. They mention that Heloise rejected this marriage; “it would be nothing of a disgrace and a burden to Abelard”. Heloise willing agrees to protect the career of Abelard. She is prepared to accept the shame of a single mother to further Abelard career. The servile woman is acknowledging that the man’s aspiration is more important. The Benedictine rule warns men of the desires of the flesh. These monks considered sexual relationship as a sin. The church in this period links the woman to every carnal sin. The woman is a child whose only path to forgiveness is to be a servile wife and to have faith in the rules of the church. These rules were very biased and unfair. To continue men had control over women and in inviting Abelard to live in his house and teach Heloise, he transferred part of the task of guiding Heloise to Abelard. Abelard writes, “[Fulbert] gave me complete charge over the girl…handing her over to me to punish as wellas to teach” The girl Heloise had no say in this arrangement and it was like this for all classes of women in the eleven hundreds. They had no choice in marriage or educational choices. The male heirs could put females in a nunnery without their consent. It was very much a world of male domination. In the beginning of the second letter, Heloise states these words; to her lord or rather to her father, or rather brother. To Abelard, from Heloise”. Heloise is writing in the position of her station, she is the concubine and servant. To continue Heloise says, “God knows I never sought anything in you except yourself; I only wanted you and none of the marriage portion and it was not my own pleasures and wishes I sought to gratify, as you well know, but yours. She then says the more she humbles herself on Abelard account, the more gratitude I should win from you, and the less damage I should do to the brightness of your reputation”. Although Abelard is now a castrated beast of the church the woman or humble servant will always follow. Heloise actions does contradict Benedictine rule when she says, I would have no hesitation in following you to the flames of hell. The twentieth first rule states to love Christ above all else. In this period, the words of Heloise would equate a woman in consort with the devil. Moreover, the monks chose to live a life free of women to gain salvation in heaven they believed the woman to be the route of evil and her sex and sweet looks to be the captive of all sinners. They believe that it is Gods law that imposes a husband or lord on the woman. The husband role is to guide the naïve woman. In the sixth letter, she inquires that he invents some rule that is suitable for the women because the rule used for men is not always applicable. The role of women in this period was to seek advice from the man. Women could not think for themselves in this period Heloise was only doing what was natural when she sought advice from Abelard, because women had no standard code to follow. Laws are for men, the womans role in this period was follow and obey. In letter five, Abelard speaks of the black woman. He speaks of her inner beauty her white teeth and ample body in contrast to the fairer woman. He talks about the black woman being humble and righteous to her man. He talks of the King liking this woman in bed. The woman states the fact she humbles her self this way is due to the man she serves. Allegorically this quote as many meanings but to the laymen it defines, the cunning woman and her sexual position of being servitude to the husband.The medieval woman’s crime is the temptation of Eve in the “Garden of Eden”. The laymen believe her sin is greater and she must humble herself to her husband and God.

In conclusion, the medieval woman’s world is an unwritten penance for her illicit bargain with Satan. The church instructed canon laws and the nobles created feudal laws to control society. These restrictions were to hinder the growth of women for 800 more years. The story of Abelard and Heloise is more a tragedy than romance. Heloise was only doing what was natural when she sought advice from Abelard, because women had no standard code to follow. Laws are for men, the womens role in this period was follow and obey.


What Happens When Obama wins?

Barack Obama

The United State presidential election 2008 has got wide publicity and interest among variouss regions, states and Nations. One peculiar characteristics of this election is the optimism created among the youths and American people due to a well publicized campaign by the democratic and Republicans. However, the media seemed to have favored Barrack Obama more because he is charismatic leader, has appealed to younger voters than his opponent old and new. So many young girls, ladies and women of all generations voted him in opinion polls as sexy politician of the year this year 2008(quote if possible).

However, my concern is how he is going to handle the United States government once elected today being 4th of November 2008. I have no misgiving that he will do alright; however, I am perturbed by the pressure at the White house. I am concerned about too much Bureaucracy put together makes a hell chain of headache for a young man of his type. Some people feel that he promotes socialist agenda while McCain thinks he’s more of a liberal than any one in the United States. United States democracy is built upon liberal principles of liberty, freedom, civil rights, rule of law and other democratic theories. Hence, calling him a liberal is not a problem he tends to follow the core values stated in the constitution of the United States.

Meanwhile, so many people have had some paradox recently or what I may call ”stupid prophesy’ that he will be killed once he becomes the president of United States of America in 2008. When has it become something normal for everyone to believe that once a good man enters politics, he or she must be killed? When has it become a normal thinking even among blacks that once a black man or women enters into power, he or she must be killed or made to submit to ignorance and cowardice? Though, this hypothesis seemed to have been proved very recently by the two American skin heads between the ages of 18 and 20 years who tried to eliminate him and more than 200 black people listed in their agenda this year 2008. the question is that,” why should some one try to kill him ? Why is it that none of these premise occurred during George W. Bush era of government with all the sins he committed against America.” Sins’ that have caused tremendous economic havoc presently in stock decay and degeneration to almost 90% since the last depression in the 30’s; Sins that have caused American people loose jobs, mortgage, loss soldiers more than 5000 people in Iraq. Sins that has caused bad international relations among neighbors and continents/countries.

Meanwhile, my point is that,” Barack Obama will leave to enjoy his hard work for the next generation. its going to be tough on him to carry on or work against bad policies of George bush for the next 5 years, but with the support of the people whom he has vehemently encouraged to follow him  to the white house, with his believe in God and the people he’s working with, nothing ever will happen to him. However, my advice is that he has to take his “human and physical security” very serious and not be “so liberal” to forget himself at the Whitehouse. Second, he needs to watch the FBI and other insiders very closely because the FBI has got the key to his “physical and human security” more than many Americans. He needs to watch ordinary people on the street including his community where he has been branded to belong. Over and above all, he needs to strongly believe in himself and his GOD since he’s been a Christian or Moslem either way; therefore, let him not go against his principles of Christianity nor of his religion just to please so many of Americans to a fault. Some people argue that religion and politics should not be merged because of conflicts and crisis that emanate from joining politics with religion. But, religion can never be separated from politics in so far as humans continuously seek to know how the world is governed by certain principles beyond their comprehensibility; in so far as , we acknowledge once in a while that we are incapable of doing all things by ourselves without the help of another or something beyond our thinking and imagination; as far as politicians belong to each type of religion -be it Hindu, Islam, Christianity, Jewish, orthodox, all these kinds of religion play part in the House of assemblies, the presidency. Just as Jf Kennedy was the only single American president who was branded catholic. Other presidents in the past were either evangelicals or any other.

Therefore, the American people should begin to think differently about race and stop in politics because at the end of every government, what matters is that,” things get done as required, policies get approved in theory and practice and citizens enjoy the legacies of good government and governance.

By Stephen Abara alias prince09

Political Science/Int’l Affairs


Oh! ancient and Modern


Ancient, when men and women allowed themselves to be enslaved
Modern, when men and women try to break the chains of slavery and enslavement
Oh contemporary! our time is in our hands
our space is beyond comprehensibility
Yet, we give in to social political slogans like, visible minority
and majority without questioning the root of such human regenerative
embellishments and disembodiment.

love and lust, hate and greed, ignorance and calculated education and knowledge
has become our age long horror and dismay
when has the love world turned into a danger zone for all?
some say, it was between moments in history when people began to ,
identify each other with colors.

Are colors abstract, illusion or reality?
if a medical expert decide to operate a so called ” white dog”
does the surgeon see the inside as completely white or multiple colors.
what if he decides to operate the so called “black dog or German Shepherd”
I want an evidence from any surgeon telling me the inside was completely white
or black , brown or green, yellow and purple.

Oh wonderful is the term called “Color”- A mind game thou art be
a real game when it becomes real to the illusionist and the believer
Yet, it makes us see dynamism and difference in reality and existence.
it is time to start looking away from color to be able to meet reality than
embracing completely the illusion colored time and space offers to young and
old.

Oh modern and ancient
the classical age seems to be better
the best of all is the root
search for the root and peace, love and progress will at our doors.

STEPHEN ABARA
GLENDON COLLEGE , YORK UNIVERSITY



Celine Dionceline-dion-2007-world-music-awards3

Who has never heard about this talented Quebecer lady from Charlemagne?

Her touching and resonant voice with emotion has, for decades, conquered millions of fans all around the world.

She came into the world on March 30th, 1968. Celine is the youngest of fourteen children. Her parents were middle class people, Dion emerged as teen star in the French-speaking world after her manager and future husband Rene Angelil mortgaged his home to finance her first record.

In 1982 when she appeared on the Yamaha World Popular Song festival. In 1986 she signed on with Sony records.

While she was only twenty she won the Eurovision concourse and two years later, her first big global success came with the release of the album titled, “Unison”.

celine-and-rene-wedding

But it was the early part of the 1990s when she received great success world wide. In this period she came out with several French and English albums.

celine-jean



She worked in particular with Jean-Jacques Goldman who made her an amazing singer in France. “D’Eux” remains one of the best-seller albums and the next discs were also really successful. This wonderful duet-playing of artists was the French public’s favourite.

celine-dion-ps05

Over the years, through titles such as “My Heart will go on”, “Beauty and the beast”, “The power of love”, “Tell Him” or “Immortality” she joined most famous musicians like Barbra Streisand or the Bee Gees. Thus she got an international recognition.

In 1999, she temporarily retired from the music business to start a family and spend more time with her ailing husband who had been diagnosed with cancer.

celine dion 060508



In 2001, the couple gave birth to a little boy, Rene-Charles, and thus decided to have a break.

Moreover, she has never once hesitated over benefitting from her fame to offer the poorest her generosity and her kindness (Les Enfoirés’ concert, victims from the Tsunami…).

Later on, “A New Day…” nightly show at Caesar’s Palace in Las Vegas for five years transformed her into an American performer. This way, she was thrust to the top of the music celebrities.

Her Taking Chances World Tour 2008/2009 in which she plays surrounded with excellent dancers is gorgeous as well! As a big fan, believe me, it was hard stop crying during the show, when I saw her a few months ago!!!

celine-dion

Celine is a great, nice and strong lady who invites people to share one of her life philosophy: “S’il suffisait d’aimer” (If it was enough to love…)


By Clemence Legros